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      Shortened red blood cell age in patients with end-stage renal disease who were receiving haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study


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          The causes of anaemia in patients with end-stage renal disease include a relative deficiency in erythropoietin production and complex clinical conditions. We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of anaemia in patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing maintenance dialysis by measuring erythrocyte creatine levels.


          In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 69 patients with end-stage renal disease who were receiving haemodialysis ( n = 55) or peritoneal dialysis ( n = 14). Erythrocyte creatine level, a quantitative marker of mean red blood cell (RBC) age, was measured.


          The mean RBC age was significantly shorter in the haemodialysis group than in the peritoneal dialysis group (47.7 days vs. 59.8 days, p < 0.0001), although the haemoglobin levels were comparable between the groups. A Spearman correlation coefficient analysis revealed that shortened RBC age positively correlated with transferrin saturation ( r = 0.54), ferritin level ( r = 0.47), and haptoglobin level ( r = 0.39) but inversely related with reticulocyte ( r = − 0.36), weekly doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs; r = − 0.62), erythropoietin resistance index ( r = − 0.64), and intradialytic ultrafiltration rate ( r = − 0.32).


          Shortened RBC age was observed in patients who were receiving maintenance haemodialysis and was associated with iron deficiency, greater haptoglobin consumption, higher ESA requirements, and poor erythropoietin responsiveness, as well as with greater intradialytic fluid extraction.

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          KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Anemia in CKD.

          The 2012 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) Clinical Practice Guideline for Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease provides clinicians with comprehensive evidence-based recommendations to improve patient care. In this commentary, we review these recommendations and the underlying evidence. Most recommendations are well reasoned. For some, the evidence is unclear and recommendations require some qualification. While the KDIGO guideline stresses the potential risks of intravenous iron therapy, withholding iron might have its own risks. The recommendation to avoid hemoglobin levels falling below 9 g/dL sets a lower bound of "acceptability" that may increase blood transfusion. Given the lack of research supporting the optimal transfusion strategy for end-stage renal disease patients, it is difficult to weigh the risks and benefits of red blood cell transfusion. We find a paucity of evidence that hemoglobin concentration targeted between 11 and 11.5 g/dL is associated with a safety risk. Although the evidence that erythropoiesis-stimulating agent use improves patient quality of life is poor, it is possible that the instruments used to measure quality of life may not be well attuned to the needs of chronic kidney disease or dialysis patients. Our last section focuses specifically on the recommendations to treat anemia in children. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Red blood cell survival in long-term dialysis patients.

            Shortening of red blood cell (RBC) survival contributes to the anemia of chronic kidney disease. The toxic uremic environment accounts for the decreased RBC life span. The contribution of mechanical damage caused by hemodialysis to the shortened life span is unclear. Reductions up to 70% in RBC survival have been reported in uremic patients. To date, no accurate well-controlled RBC survival data exist in dialysis patients treated using different dialysis modalities and receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy. The aim of this study was to determine RBC survival in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients compared with healthy persons. Observational study. 14 HD patients and 5 PD patients were recruited from the dialysis unit. Healthy volunteers (n = 14) age- and sex-matched to HD participants were included. All dialysis patients received either ESA therapy or regular iron supplementation. Dialysis patients versus age- and sex-matched healthy controls. RBC survival. RBC survival was determined using radioactive chromium labeling. More than 85% of dialysis patients were anemic (hemoglobin, 12.0 ± 1.1 g/dL); hemoglobin concentrations were not significantly different between HD and PD patients. Median RBC survival was significantly decreased by 20% in HD patients compared with healthy controls: 58.1 (25th-75th percentile, 54.6-71.2) versus 72.9 (25th-75th percentile, 63.4-87.8) days (P = 0.02). No difference was shown between the PD and HD groups: 55.3 (25th-75th percentile, 49.0-60.2) versus 58.1 (25th-75th percentile, 54.6-71.2) days (P = 0.2). Label loss from RBCs associated with the chromium 51 labeling technique needs to be accounted for in the interpretation of RBC survival data. Despite current ESA therapy, decreased RBC survival contributes to chronic kidney disease-related anemia, although the reduction is less than previously reported. There does not appear to be net mechanical damage associated with HD therapy resulting in decreased RBC life span. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Hemolysis-associated endothelial dysfunction mediated by accelerated NO inactivation by decompartmentalized oxyhemoglobin.

              During intravascular hemolysis in human disease, vasomotor tone and organ perfusion may be impaired by the increased reactivity of cell-free plasma hemoglobin (Hb) with NO. We experimentally produced acute intravascular hemolysis in a canine model in order to test the hypothesis that low levels of decompartmentalized or cell-free plasma Hb will severely reduce NO bioavailability and produce vasomotor instability. Importantly, in this model the total intravascular Hb level is unchanged; only the compartmentalization of Hb within the erythrocyte membrane is disrupted. Using a full-factorial design, we demonstrate that free water-induced intravascular hemolysis produces dose-dependent systemic vasoconstriction and impairs renal function. We find that these physiologic changes are secondary to the stoichiometric oxidation of endogenous NO by cell-free plasma oxyhemoglobin. In this model, 80 ppm of inhaled NO gas oxidized 85-90% of plasma oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin, thereby inhibiting endogenous NO scavenging by cell-free Hb. As a result, the vasoconstriction caused by acute hemolysis was attenuated and the responsiveness to systemically infused NO donors was restored. These observations confirm that the acute toxicity of intravascular hemolysis occurs secondarily to the accelerated dioxygenation reaction of plasma oxyhemoglobin with endothelium-derived NO to form bioinactive nitrate. These biochemical and physiological studies demonstrate a major role for the intact erythrocyte in NO homeostasis and provide mechanistic support for the existence of a human syndrome of hemolysis-associated NO dysregulation, which may contribute to the vasculopathy of hereditary, acquired, and iatrogenic hemolytic states.

                Author and article information

                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                29 September 2020
                29 September 2020
                : 21
                [1 ]GRID grid.410783.9, ISNI 0000 0001 2172 5041, Department of Medicine II, , Kansai Medical University, ; 10-15 Fumizono-cho, Moriguchi, 5708507 Japan
                [2 ]GRID grid.274841.c, ISNI 0000 0001 0660 6749, Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, , Kumamoto University, ; Kumamoto, Japan
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: Nakatani Foundation for Advancement of Measuring Technologies in Biomedical Engineering (JP)
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2020


                anaemia, haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, red blood cell age


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