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      Niveles de material particulado en colegios distritales ubicados en vías con alto tráfico vehicular en la ciudad de Bogotá: estudio piloto Translated title: Particulate matter concentrations at public schools located near major urban roads in Bogota, Colombia: a pilot study

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          Abstract

          Se presenta un estudio piloto en el que se caracterizaron los niveles de material particulado respirable (PM10) en cuatro colegios distritales (CD) en Bogotá. Tres de estos CD estaban ubicados en inmediaciones de vías consideradas de alto tráfico vehicular, por las que circulan diferentes tipos de transporte público (colectivo convencional y masivo). El CD restante (utilizado como sitio control para el experimento) se encontraba ubicado sobre una vía en una zona semi-rural de la ciudad. La determinación de las concentraciones atmosféricas de PM10 se realizó utilizando técnicas de medición gravimétricas y en tiempo real. Los niveles medios de PM10 registrados en los CD se encuentran en un rango entre 55 y 91 ug m-3. Estas cifras indican que las concentraciones del contaminante al interior de las instituciones educativas exceden los valores considerados como nocivos para poblaciones sensibles por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones de PM10 encontradas en el CD seleccionado como control y las concentraciones encontradas en los otros CD. Los resultados aquí presentados corresponden a la línea base de un estudio longitudinal que aún está en desarrollo y evidencian la necesidad de continuar con investigación orientada a caracterizar el rango de concentraciones de material particulado en las inmediaciones de las principales vías de la ciudad de Bogotá.

          Translated abstract

          A pilot study, in which we conducted inhalable particulate matter (PM10) measurements in four public elementary schools in Bogotá, is presented. Three of these schools are located alongside major urban roads with different types of public transportation. The remainder school is located alongside a rural road. PM10 measurements were carried out using both gravimetric and real time techniques. Average PM10 concentrations found in the schools ranged from 55 ug m-3 to 91 ug m-3. These pollutant concentrations are above the World Health Organization reference values. Significant differences in PM10 concentrations were observed between the schools located in urban roads and the school located in the semi-rural area. The present work corresponds to the base line results of a longitudinal study that is still being conducted. These results demonstrate the importance of continuing developing research aimed at characterizing the range of atmospheric pollutants at major city roads environs in Bogota.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Air pollution and children's health.

           Joel Schwartz (2004)
          Children's exposure to air pollution is a special concern because their immune system and lungs are not fully developed when exposure begins, raising the possibility of different responses than seen in adults. In addition, children spend more time outside, where the concentrations of pollution from traffic, powerplants, and other combustion sources are generally higher. Although air pollution has long been thought to exacerbate minor acute illnesses, recent studies have suggested that air pollution, particularly traffic-related pollution, is associated with infant mortality and the development of asthma and atopy. Other studies have associated particulate air pollution with acute bronchitis in children and demonstrated that rates of bronchitis and chronic cough declined in areas where particle concentrations have fallen. More mixed results have been reported for lung function. Overall, evidence for effects of air pollution on children have been growing, and effects are seen at concentrations that are common today. Although many of these associations seem likely to be causal, others require and warrant additional investigation.
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            Ambient air pollution: health hazards to children.

             ,  Stanley E Kim (2004)
            Ambient (outdoor) air pollution is now recognized as an important problem, both nationally and worldwide. Our scientific understanding of the spectrum of health effects of air pollution has increased, and numerous studies are finding important health effects from air pollution at levels once considered safe. Children and infants are among the most susceptible to many of the air pollutants. In addition to associations between air pollution and respiratory symptoms, asthma exacerbations, and asthma hospitalizations, recent studies have found links between air pollution and preterm birth, infant mortality, deficits in lung growth, and possibly, development of asthma. This policy statement summarizes the recent literature linking ambient air pollution to adverse health outcomes in children and includes a perspective on the current regulatory process. The statement provides advice to pediatricians on how to integrate issues regarding air quality and health into patient education and children's environmental health advocacy and concludes with recommendations to the government on promotion of effective air-pollution policies to ensure protection of children's health.
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              Evaluación de los Efectos de la Contaminación del Aire en la Salud de América Latina y el Caribe

              (2005)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
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                Role: ND
                Journal
                rfiua
                Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia
                Rev.fac.ing.univ. Antioquia
                Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín )
                0120-6230
                September 2009
                : 0
                : 49
                : 101-111
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad de Los Andes Venezuela
                [2 ] Universidad Nacional de Colombia Colombia
                [3 ] Universidad de Los Andes Venezuela
                [4 ] Secretaría Distrital de Salud de Bogotá Colombia
                [5 ] Universidad de Los Andes Venezuela
                Article
                S0120-62302009000300010
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                ENGINEERING, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

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