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      Saireito and Saikosaponin D Prevent Urinary Protein Excretion via Glucocorticoid Receptor in Adrenalectomized WKY Rats with Heterologous-Phase Anti-GBM Nephritis


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          Aims: In order to clarify the antinephritic mechanisms of saireito, the glucocorticoid receptor agonistic effect of saireito was evaluated in adrenalectomized rats with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) nephritis. Methods: Rats with anti-GBM nephritis were subjected to adrenalectomy to exclude the effects of endogenous steroid hormones to investigate effects of saireito on the nephritis. The suppressive effects of saireito and saikosaponin D on the production of cytokines were investigated in vitro andin vivo. Results: Administration of saireito or saikosaponin D significantly suppressed the increase of urinary protein excretion and histopathological changes in adrenalectomized nephritic rats. Coadministration of saireito or saikosaponin D and RU-38486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, did not suppress the increase of urinary protein excretion. Saikosaponin D inhibited the glucocorticoid receptor binding of [<sup>3</sup>H]dexamethasone in anin vitro assay (IC<sub>50</sub> ratio 5.8 µmol/l). The IC<sub>50</sub> values of saikosaponin D for the release of IL-2 and IL-10 were 13.4 and 12.3 µmol/l, respectively. Administration of saireito and saikosaponin D prevented an increase in IL-2 levels in the renal cortex of anti-GBM nephritic rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antinephritic effects of saireito may be partly attributable to an agonistic action on the glucocorticoid receptor by saikosaponin D, a component of saireito.

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          Effects of dexamethasone on the profile of cytokine secretion in human whole blood cell cultures.

          The interaction between the endocrine and immune systems is a very intriguing area. Endogenous glucocorticoids, as end-effectors of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, inhibit the immune and inflammatory responses and are used as immunosuppressive drugs in many inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on the profile of cytokine secretion in whole blood cell cultures from healthy subjects and to analyse the gender-related sensitivity to dexamethasone on each cytokine secretion. There was a significant inhibition by dexamethasone (from 1 to 100 nM) on the secretion of monokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF alpha) and lymphokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma), either after LPS or PHA stimulation (P < 0.01). Interleukin 4 and IL-10 were less inhibited than IFN gamma (P < 0.05 at 1 nM, P < 0.01 at 10 nM and P < 0.001 from 100 nM to 10 microM). No gender difference was observed in the rate of inhibition of the secretion of each cytokine. This study shows that the inhibition of cytokine secretion by dexamethasone is more marked on Th1-type cytokines than on Th2-type cytokines. These data support the idea that glucocorticoids may induce a shift from the Th1 to Th2 profile of cytokine secretion.
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            FK506 ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions induced by anti-Thy 1.1 monoclonal antibody 1-22-3

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              Efficacy of galectins in the amelioration of nephrotoxic serum nephritis in Wistar Kyoto rats.

              Galectins are characterized by specific affinity for beta-galactoside sugars, and they play a role in diverse biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Galectin-1, -3, and -9 have been implicated in modulating the immune response. Nephrotoxic serum nephritis, which is characterized by crescent formation and glomerular influx of CD8+ cells into glomerular capillaries, was induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by injecting rabbit antiglomerular basement membrane serum. Following induction, the rats were treated either with phosphate-buffered saline or dexamethasone, galectin-1, galectin-3, or galectin-9 on alternate days and were sacrificed at day 14. At day 8, splenic lymphocytes were isolated and employed for terminal deoxytransferase-mediated uridine triphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay to assess the degree of apoptosis, and the kidneys were utilized to determine the extent of influx of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells and glomerular damage. Dexamethasone induced a marked apoptosis of splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, and it inhibited the production of anti-rabbit IgG and the influx of CD8+ cells and macrophages into the renal glomeruli. Crescent formation and excretion of urinary proteins were also reduced. Galectin-9 failed to induce apoptosis in the CD4(+) cells; however, it induced apoptosis in the CD8(+) cells and inhibited the infiltration of CD8(+) cells. Although galectin-1 and -3 did not induce the apoptosis in the T cells, they inhibited the accumulation of macrophages in the renal glomeruli. Like dexamethasone, the galectins also reduced the crescentic formation, proliferation of glomerular cells, and excretion of urinary proteins. Galectin-9 selectively induces apoptosis of the activated CD8(+) cells, while the macrophage influx into the kidney is modulated by all three galectins. This finding raises an interesting possibility for the utility of galectins in the modulation of macrophages that are involved in immune-mediated glomerular diseases.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                July 2008
                04 July 2008
                : 109
                : 2
                : p19-p27
                Tsumura & Co., Central Research Laboratories and Ibaraki Plant, Ami-machi, Japan
                142397 Nephron Physiol 2008;109:p19
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 04 January 2007
                : 17 February 2008
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 1
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Saireito,Corticosterone,Proteinuria,Anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis


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