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      Controlling supramolecular polymerization through multicomponent self-assembly

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      Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry
      Wiley

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          Fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly.

          Two complementary strategies can be used in the fabrication of molecular biomaterials. In the 'top-down' approach, biomaterials are generated by stripping down a complex entity into its component parts (for example, paring a virus particle down to its capsid to form a viral cage). This contrasts with the 'bottom-up' approach, in which materials are assembled molecule by molecule (and in some cases even atom by atom) to produce novel supramolecular architectures. The latter approach is likely to become an integral part of nanomaterials manufacture and requires a deep understanding of individual molecular building blocks and their structures, assembly properties and dynamic behaviors. Two key elements in molecular fabrication are chemical complementarity and structural compatibility, both of which confer the weak and noncovalent interactions that bind building blocks together during self-assembly. Using natural processes as a guide, substantial advances have been achieved at the interface of nanomaterials and biology, including the fabrication of nanofiber materials for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering, the assembly of peptide or protein nanotubes and helical ribbons, the creation of living microlenses, the synthesis of metal nanowires on DNA templates, the fabrication of peptide, protein and lipid scaffolds, the assembly of electronic materials by bacterial phage selection, and the use of radiofrequency to regulate molecular behaviors.
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            ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY

            Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging treatment modality which uses replication competent viruses to destroy cancers. Advances in the past two years include preclinical proof of feasibility for a single-shot virotherapy cure, identification of drugs that accelerate intratumoral virus propagation, new strategies to maximize the immunotherapeutic potential of oncolytic virotherapy, and clinical confirmation of a critical viremic thereshold for vascular delivery and intratumoral virus replication. The primary clinical milestone was completion of accrual in a phase III trial of intratumoral herpes simplex virus therapy using talimogene laherparepvec for metastatic melanoma. Challenges for the field are to select ‘winners’ from a burgeoning number of oncolytic platforms and engineered derivatives, to transiently suppress but then unleash the power of the immune system to maximize both virus spread and anticancer immunity, to develop more meaningful preclinical virotherapy models and to manufacture viruses with orders of magnitude higher yields compared to established vaccine manufacturing processes.
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              Supramolecular polymerization.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry
                J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem.
                Wiley
                0887624X
                January 01 2017
                January 01 2017
                October 21 2016
                : 55
                : 1
                : 34-78
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Organic Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz; Duesbergweg 10-14 Mainz 55128 Germany
                Article
                10.1002/pola.28385
                e467f695-63f5-46da-a151-4fd4db09e98a
                © 2016

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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