Dementia is a term denoting a set of symptoms that are associated with an ongoing decline of brain functioning. There are a broad range of symptoms that are grouped together under the umbrella term of dementia, including memory loss, problems with thinking, language and difficulties performing daily activities. Alzheimer's Disease International state that someone in the world develops dementia every three seconds, with approximately 50 million people around the world living with dementia. This is estimated to double every 20 years. Given these figures, there is a considerable economic cost associated with dementia. As it stands, there is no cure for dementia at present, but if it is diagnosed in the early stages, there are effective means of slowing the onset of dementia and maintaining mental function. Indeed, with treatment and support, dementia patients are able to lead active and fulfilling lives. In Japan, there are governmental guidelines for the treatment of dementia which explicitly recommend non-pharmacological therapies and suggests these are effective preventive measures for the onset of the condition. However, these guidelines also explicitly state that these assertions are not based on scientific grounds, thereby opening up a field for potential investigation. It is believed that cognitive rehabilitation programmes that are conducted in nursing homes have a positive effect on the preservation of cognitive function, but such programmes are lacking in availability and there are still many knowledge gaps to be filled through further studies, research and investigations. It is with these gaps in mind, that Dr Masakazu Kubota has established a group of researchers intent on verifying the effectiveness of dementia nursing care.