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      Influence of N-Myristylation and Ligand Binding on the Flexibility of the Catalytic Subunit of Protein Kinase A

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          Abstract

          The catalytic (C) subunit of protein kinase A is regulated in part by cotranslational N-myristylation and ligand binding. Using a combination of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we characterized the effect of N-myristylation and ligand binding on C-subunit dynamics. Five single-site cysteine-substitution mutants of the C-subunit were engineered with and without N-terminal myristylation and labeled with fluorescein maleimide, and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decays were measured to assess the flexibility of the labeled regions in the presence and absence of ligands. A parallel set of in silico experiments were performed to complement the experimental findings. These experiments showed that myristylation produces both local and global effects on C-subunit dynamics. The local effects include stabilization of the N-terminus and myristate pocket, and the global effects include small increases in mobility along the C-tail at residue C343. Additionally, ligand binding was associated with an increase in mobility of the myristate binding pocket for both the myristylated and nonmyristylated enzyme on the basis of both the experimental and MD results. Also, MD simulations suggest that the myristylated protein exhibits increased dynamics when bound to ligands compared to the nonmyristylated protein.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Comparison of multiple Amber force fields and development of improved protein backbone parameters.

          The ff94 force field that is commonly associated with the Amber simulation package is one of the most widely used parameter sets for biomolecular simulation. After a decade of extensive use and testing, limitations in this force field, such as over-stabilization of alpha-helices, were reported by us and other researchers. This led to a number of attempts to improve these parameters, resulting in a variety of "Amber" force fields and significant difficulty in determining which should be used for a particular application. We show that several of these continue to suffer from inadequate balance between different secondary structure elements. In addition, the approach used in most of these studies neglected to account for the existence in Amber of two sets of backbone phi/psi dihedral terms. This led to parameter sets that provide unreasonable conformational preferences for glycine. We report here an effort to improve the phi/psi dihedral terms in the ff99 energy function. Dihedral term parameters are based on fitting the energies of multiple conformations of glycine and alanine tetrapeptides from high level ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The new parameters for backbone dihedrals replace those in the existing ff99 force field. This parameter set, which we denote ff99SB, achieves a better balance of secondary structure elements as judged by improved distribution of backbone dihedrals for glycine and alanine with respect to PDB survey data. It also accomplishes improved agreement with published experimental data for conformational preferences of short alanine peptides and better accord with experimental NMR relaxation data of test protein systems. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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            Improved side-chain torsion potentials for the Amber ff99SB protein force field

            Recent advances in hardware and software have enabled increasingly long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules, exposing certain limitations in the accuracy of the force fields used for such simulations and spurring efforts to refine these force fields. Recent modifications to the Amber and CHARMM protein force fields, for example, have improved the backbone torsion potentials, remedying deficiencies in earlier versions. Here, we further advance simulation accuracy by improving the amino acid side-chain torsion potentials of the Amber ff99SB force field. First, we used simulations of model alpha-helical systems to identify the four residue types whose rotamer distribution differed the most from expectations based on Protein Data Bank statistics. Second, we optimized the side-chain torsion potentials of these residues to match new, high-level quantum-mechanical calculations. Finally, we used microsecond-timescale MD simulations in explicit solvent to validate the resulting force field against a large set of experimental NMR measurements that directly probe side-chain conformations. The new force field, which we have termed Amber ff99SB-ILDN, exhibits considerably better agreement with the NMR data. Proteins 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Routine Microsecond Molecular Dynamics Simulations with AMBER on GPUs. 1. Generalized Born

              We present an implementation of generalized Born implicit solvent all-atom classical molecular dynamics (MD) within the AMBER program package that runs entirely on CUDA enabled NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). We discuss the algorithms that are used to exploit the processing power of the GPUs and show the performance that can be achieved in comparison to simulations on conventional CPU clusters. The implementation supports three different precision models in which the contributions to the forces are calculated in single precision floating point arithmetic but accumulated in double precision (SPDP), or everything is computed in single precision (SPSP) or double precision (DPDP). In addition to performance, we have focused on understanding the implications of the different precision models on the outcome of implicit solvent MD simulations. We show results for a range of tests including the accuracy of single point force evaluations and energy conservation as well as structural properties pertainining to protein dynamics. The numerical noise due to rounding errors within the SPSP precision model is sufficiently large to lead to an accumulation of errors which can result in unphysical trajectories for long time scale simulations. We recommend the use of the mixed-precision SPDP model since the numerical results obtained are comparable with those of the full double precision DPDP model and the reference double precision CPU implementation but at significantly reduced computational cost. Our implementation provides performance for GB simulations on a single desktop that is on par with, and in some cases exceeds, that of traditional supercomputers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biochemistry
                Biochemistry
                bi
                bichaw
                Biochemistry
                American Chemical Society
                0006-2960
                1520-4995
                04 September 2013
                17 September 2013
                : 52
                : 37
                : 6368-6379
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, San Diego Supercomputer Center, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California , San Diego, California 92093, United States
                [§ ]Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California , Riverside, California 92521, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]S. S. Taylor. Address: 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0654. E-mail: staylor@ 123456ucsd.edu . Phone: 858-534-3677. Fax: 858-534-8193.
                Article
                10.1021/bi400575k
                3788587
                24003983
                Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society
                Funding
                National Institutes of Health, United States
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                bi400575k
                bi-2013-00575k

                Biochemistry

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