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      Potential of Sanguiin H-6 against Oxidative Damage in Renal Mitochondria and Apoptosis Mediated by Peroxynitrite in vivo

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          Potential of sanguiin H-6, a component of Sanguisorbae Radix, to protect against oxidative damage in renal mitochondria and apoptosis mediated by peroxynitrite (ONOO<sup>–</sup>) was examined using a model in which rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and then subjected to renal ischemia followed reperfusion (LPS plus ischemia-reperfusion). Ischemia-reperfusion was achieved by occluding bilateral renal artery for 60 min and then releasing for 350 min. At 50 min after ischemia started, LPS was injected intravenously. LPS plus ischemia-reperfusion induced a large amount of 3-nitrotyrosine, an oxidative product of protein that is produced via ONOO<sup>–</sup> nitration, which was not detectable in normal group. Oxidative damage of mitochondria was indicated by an accumulated thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance, glutathione (GSH) depletion and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) inactivation in the mitochondria. Treatment of rats with sanguiin H-6 (10 mg/kg body weight/day) for 30 days prior to LPS plus ischemia-reperfusion attenuated the oxidative damage in the mitochondria. The amount of TBA-reactive substance was decreased and the GSH levels significantly increased as compared with that in control group. However, its effect on GSH-Px activity was much weaker. Apoptosis induced by LPS plus ischemia-reperfusion was detected by fluorescence staining, TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and electrophoretic analysis. Sanguiin H-6 appeared to inhibit apoptosis, and this was associated with the suppression of caspase-3 activity. These beneficial effects of sanguiin H-6 against oxidative damage in mitochondria and apoptosis contributed to the improvement in renal function by reversing the elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine caused by ONOO<sup>–</sup>.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Selective pharmacological inhibition of distinct nitric oxide synthase isoforms.

          Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in physiological and pathophysiological conditions by three distinct isoforms of NO synthase (NOS): endothelial NOS (ecNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and brain NOS (bNOS). Selective inhibition of iNOS may be beneficial in various forms of shock and inflammation, whereas inhibition of bNOS may protect against neuroinjury. This article surveys the enzymatic mechanism of NO production, lists the strategies and pharmacological tools for selective inhibition of distinct NOS isoforms, and considers the side-effects of the various approaches. Selective inhibition of NOS isoforms is achieved by: (a) targeting the differential co-factor (calmodulin or tetrahydrobiopterin) requirement of various NOS isoforms, and NOS; (b) targeting the differential substrate requirements of cells expressing various isoforms of NOS (L-arginine uptake blockers or arginase); (c) the use of pharmacological agents that are selectively taken up by cells expressing various isoforms of NOS (7-nitroindazole); or (d) developing pharmacological NOS inhibitors with isoform specificity. The amino acid-based NOS inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine, shows a preference for ecNOS and bNOS over iNOS, whereas L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine is selective for iNOS over bNOS. Certain non-amino acid-based small molecules, such as aminoguanidine and certain S-alkylated isothioureas, also express selectivity towards iNOS and have anti-inflammatory and anti-shock properties. 7-nitroindazole, a bNOS-selective inhibitor, protects in central nervous system injury. Clearly, there are a number of distinct approaches that are worthy of further research efforts in order to achieve even more selective targeting of various NOS isoforms
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            Cytochrome c nitration by peroxynitrite.

            Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), the product of superoxide (O(2)) and nitric oxide (.NO) reaction, inhibits mitochondrial respiration and can stimulate apoptosis. Cytochrome c, a mediator of these two aspects of mitochondrial function, thus represents an important potential target of ONOO(-) during conditions involving accelerated rates of oxygen radical and.NO generation. Horse heart cytochrome c(3+) was nitrated by ONOO(-), as indicated by spectral changes, Western blot analysis, and mass spectrometry. A dose-dependent loss of cytochrome c(3+) 695 nm absorption occurred, inferring that nitration of a critical heme-vicinal tyrosine (Tyr-67) promoted a conformational change, displacing the Met-80 heme ligand. Nitration was confirmed by cross-reactivity with a specific antibody against 3-nitrotyrosine and by increased molecular mass compatible with the addition of a nitro-(-NO(2)) group. Mass analysis of tryptic digests indicated the preferential nitration of Tyr-67 among the four conserved tyrosine residues in cytochrome c. Cytochrome c(3+) was more extensively nitrated than cytochrome c(2+) because of the preferential oxidation of the reduced heme by ONOO(-). Similar protein nitration patterns were obtained by ONOO(-) reaction in the presence of carbon dioxide, whereupon secondary nitrating species arise from the decomposition of the nitroso-peroxocarboxylate (ONOOCO(2)(-)) intermediate. Peroxynitrite-nitrated cytochrome c displayed significant changes in redox properties, including (a) increased peroxidatic activity, (b) resistance to reduction by ascorbate, and (c) impaired support of state 4-dependent respiration in intact rat heart mitochondria. These results indicate that cytochrome c nitration may represent both oxidative and signaling events occurring during .NO- and ONOO(-)-mediated cell injury.
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              Formation of Nitrating and Chlorinating Species by Reaction of Nitrite with Hypochlorous Acid


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                September 2002
                14 August 2002
                : 92
                : 1
                : 133-141
                aInstitute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, bSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; cDepartment of Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Korea; dNational Institute for Longevity Sciences, Obu, Japan
                64483 Nephron 2002;92:133–141
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 5, References: 41, Pages: 9
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