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      Usos clínicos de los probióticos: malabsorción de lactosa, cólico del lactante, enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, enterocolitis necrotizante, Helycobacter pylori Translated title: Probiotics in lactose malabsortion, colic, inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, Helicobacter pylori

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          Abstract

          El potencial terapéutico de los probióticos, como agentes capaces de alterar la microbiota intestinal y ofrecer efectos benéficos a la salud, han llevado a su uso en patologías frecuentes en la edad pediátrica, sin embargo los resultados han sido heterogéneos. Se ha descrito una mayor eficacia en la prevención de manifestaciones clínicas de la intolerancia a la lactosa y del cólico del lactante, así como también en la enterocolitis necrotizante, además del mantenimiento de la fase de remisión en colitis ulcerativa. Su eficacia es menor, aunque es recomendable su uso, en el manejo del cólico del lactante. En la actualidad no se recomienda su uso para Enfermedad de Crohn ni tratamiento de la enterocolitis necrotizante. Aunque hay resultados satisfactorios, aún no existen recomendaciones firmes en infección por H. pylori. Todas las recomendaciones deben ser para cepas específicas de probióticos en cada enfermedad.

          Translated abstract

          The therapeutic potential of probiotics, as agents capable of altering the intestinal microbiota and provide beneficial health effects have led to its use in common diseases in children, but the results have been mixed. It seems to be more effective in preventing clinical manifestations of lactose intolerance and prevention of colic and necrotizing enterocolitis, as well as maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. Although its effectiveness is lower, it is recommended the use in the management of colic. At present its use for treating Crohn's disease or necrotizing enterocolitis is not recommended. Although there are successful results, there are still no firm recommendations H. pylori infection. All recommendations must be for specific strains of probiotics in each disease.

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          Innate and adaptive immunity in inflammatory bowel disease.

          Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The exact cause of IBD remains unknown. Available evidence suggests that an abnormal immune response against the microorganisms of the intestinal flora is responsible for the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. The adaptive immune response has classically been considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD. However, recent advances in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response is equally as important in inducing gut inflammation in these patients. In particular, an altered epithelial barrier function contributes to intestinal inflammation in patients with UC, while aberrant innate immune responses, such as antimicrobial peptide production, innate microbial sensing and autophagy are particularly associated to CD pathogenesis. On the other hand, besides T helper cell type (Th)1 and Th2 immune responses, other subsets of T cells, namely Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, are likely to play a role in IBD. However, given the complexity and probably the redundancy of pathways leading to IBD lesions, and the fact that Th17 cells may also have protective functions, neutralization of IL-17A failed to induce any improvement in CD. Studying the interactions between various constituents of the innate and adaptive immune systems will certainly open new horizons in the knowledge about the immunologic mechanisms implicated in gut inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            New approaches for bacteriotherapy: prebiotics, new-generation probiotics, and synbiotics.

            The gut microbiota has a significant role in human health and disease. Dysbiosis of the intestinal ecosystem contributes to the development of certain illnesses that can be reversed by favorable alterations by probiotics. The published literature was reviewed to identify scientific data showing a relationship between imbalance of gut bacteria and development of diseases that can be improved by biologic products. The medical conditions vary from infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea to obesity to chronic neurologic disorders. A number of controlled clinical trials have been performed to show important biologic effects in a number of these conditions through administration of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. Controlled clinical trials have identified a limited number of prebiotics, probiotic strains, and synbiotics that favorably prevent or improve the symptoms of various disorders including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, infectious and antibiotic-associated diarrhea, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants, and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have shown that probiotics alter gut flora and lead to elaboration of flora metabolites that influence health through 1 of 3 general mechanisms: direct antimicrobial effects, enhancement of mucosal barrier integrity, and immune modulation. Restoring the balance of intestinal flora by introducing probiotics for disease prevention and treatment could be beneficial to human health. It is also clear that significant differences exist between different probiotic species. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics together with bioinformatics have allowed us to study the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the host, furthering insight into the next generation of biologic products.
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              Genetics and Epidemiology of Adult-type Hypolactasia

              T Sahi (2009)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                avpp
                Archivos Venezolanos de Puericultura y Pediatría
                Arch Venez Puer Ped
                Sociedad Venezolana de Puericultura y Pediatría
                0004-0649
                March 2016
                : 79
                : 1
                : 022-028
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital Dr. Miguel Pérez Carreño Venezuela
                [2 ] Hospital Dr. Miguel Pérez Carreño Venezuela
                [3 ] Hospital Nuestra Señora de Chiquinquirá Venezuela
                [4 ] Universidad Venezuela
                [5 ] Hospital Materno Infantil Dr. José Gregorio Hernández Venezuela
                Article
                S0004-06492016000100006
                e4831027-cc60-467a-becd-057bb6218ce0

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0649&lng=en
                Categories
                HEALTH CARE SCIENCES & SERVICES
                HEALTH POLICY & SERVICES
                PEDIATRICS

                Pediatrics,Health & Social care,Public health
                Probióticos,Probiotics,intolerance,colic,enterocolitis,inflamatory bowel disease,Helicobacter,intolerancia,cólico,enfermedad inflamatoria intestina

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