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      Two new species and a new species record of Aglaia (Meliaceae) from Indonesia

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          Two new species of Aglaia from Indonesia are described, Aglaia monocaula restricted to West Papua, and Aglaia nyaruensis occurring on Borneo (Kalimantan, Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak). A phylogenetic analysis using nuclear ITS and ETS, and plastid rps15-ycf1 sequence data indicates that the two new species of Aglaia are also genetically distinct. Aglaia monocaula belongs to section Amoora , while A. nyaruensis is included in section Aglaia . A dichotomous key, drawings and three-locus DNA barcodes are provided as aids for the identification of the two new species of Aglaia . In addition, the geographic range of Aglaia mackiana (section Amoora ) is expanded from a single previously known site in Papua New Guinea to West Papua, Indonesia.

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          Most cited references 29

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            A DNA barcode for land plants.

            DNA barcoding involves sequencing a standard region of DNA as a tool for species identification. However, there has been no agreement on which region(s) should be used for barcoding land plants. To provide a community recommendation on a standard plant barcode, we have compared the performance of 7 leading candidate plastid DNA regions (atpF-atpH spacer, matK gene, rbcL gene, rpoB gene, rpoC1 gene, psbK-psbI spacer, and trnH-psbA spacer). Based on assessments of recoverability, sequence quality, and levels of species discrimination, we recommend the 2-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode. This core 2-locus barcode will provide a universal framework for the routine use of DNA sequence data to identify specimens and contribute toward the discovery of overlooked species of land plants.
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              Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants.

              Methods for identifying species by using short orthologous DNA sequences, known as "DNA barcodes," have been proposed and initiated to facilitate biodiversity studies, identify juveniles, associate sexes, and enhance forensic analyses. The cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence, which has been found to be widely applicable in animal barcoding, is not appropriate for most species of plants because of a much slower rate of cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene evolution in higher plants than in animals. We therefore propose the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer as potentially usable DNA regions for applying barcoding to flowering plants. The internal transcribed spacer is the most commonly sequenced locus used in plant phylogenetic investigations at the species level and shows high levels of interspecific divergence. The trnH-psbA spacer, although short ( approximately 450-bp), is the most variable plastid region in angiosperms and is easily amplified across a broad range of land plants. Comparison of the total plastid genomes of tobacco and deadly nightshade enhanced with trials on widely divergent angiosperm taxa, including closely related species in seven plant families and a group of species sampled from a local flora encompassing 50 plant families (for a total of 99 species, 80 genera, and 53 families), suggest that the sequences in this pair of loci have the potential to discriminate among the largest number of plant species for barcoding purposes.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                07 August 2020
                : 155
                : 33-51
                [1 ] University of Oxford, Department of Plant Sciences and Daubeny Herbarium (FHO), South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom Leipzig University Leipzig Germany
                [2 ] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K), Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, United Kingdom University of Oxford Oxford United Kingdom
                [3 ] Queen’s University Belfast, Marine Laboratory, 12–13 The Strand, Portaferry, County Down, BT22 1PF, United Kingdom Royal Botanic Gardens Kew United Kingdom
                [4 ] Leipzig University, Institute of Biology, Department of Molecular Evolution and Plant Systematics & Herbarium (LZ), Johannisallee 21–23, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany Queen’s University Belfast United Kingdom
                [5 ] German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Leipzig Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl ( muellner-riehl@ 123456uni-leipzig.de )

                Academic editor: Marc Appelhans

                Caroline M. Pannell, Jan Schnitzler, Alexandra N. Muellner-Riehl

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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