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      mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology

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      Nature Reviews Drug Discovery

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          mRNA vaccines represent a promising alternative to conventional vaccine approaches because of their high potency, capacity for rapid development and potential for low-cost manufacture and safe administration. However, their application has until recently been restricted by the instability and inefficient in vivo delivery of mRNA. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues, and multiple mRNA vaccine platforms against infectious diseases and several types of cancer have demonstrated encouraging results in both animal models and humans. This Review provides a detailed overview of mRNA vaccines and considers future directions and challenges in advancing this promising vaccine platform to widespread therapeutic use.

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          Most cited references 116

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          Follicular B Helper T Cells Express Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5, Localize to B Cell Follicles, and Support Immunoglobulin Production

          Chemokines and their receptors have been identified as major regulators controlling the functional organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Here we show that expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5), a chemokine receptor required for B cell homing to B cell follicles, defines a novel subpopulation of B helper T cells localizing to follicles. In peripheral blood these cells coexpress CD45RO and the T cell homing CC chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7). In secondary lymphoid organs, CD4+CXCR5+ cells lose expression of CCR7, which allows them to localize to B cell follicles and germinal centers where they express high levels of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a costimulatory molecule required for B cell activation and inducible costimulator (ICOS), a recently identified costimulatory molecule of the CD28 family. Thus, when compared with CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5− cells, CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5+ tonsillar T cells efficiently support the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. In contrast, analysis of the memory response revealed that long-lasting memory cells are found within the CD4+CD45RO+CXCR5− population, suggesting that CXCR5+CD4 cells represent recently activated effector cells. Based on the characteristic localization within secondary lymphoid organs, we suggest to term these cells “follicular B helper T cells” (TFH).
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            Cxc Chemokine Receptor 5 Expression Defines Follicular Homing T Cells with B Cell Helper Function

            Leukocyte traffic through secondary lymphoid tissues is finely tuned by chemokines. We have studied the functional properties of a human T cell subset marked by the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5). Memory but not naive T cells from tonsils are CXCR5+ and migrate in response to the B cell–attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1), which is selectively expressed by reticular cells and blood vessels within B cell follicles. Tonsillar CXCR5+ T cells do not respond to other chemokines present in secondary lymphoid tissues, including secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine (SLC), EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine (ELC), and stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1). The involvement of tonsillar CXCR5+ T cells in humoral immune responses is suggested by their localization in the mantle and light zone germinal centers of B cell follicles and by the concomitant expression of activation and costimulatory markers, including CD69, HLA-DR, and inducible costimulator (ICOS). Peripheral blood CXCR5+ T cells also belong to the CD4+ memory T cell subset but, in contrast to tonsillar cells, are in a resting state and migrate weakly to chemokines. CXCR5+ T cells are very inefficient in the production of cytokines but potently induce antibody production during coculture with B cells. These properties portray CXCR5+ T cells as a distinct memory T cell subset with B cell helper function, designated here as follicular B helper T cells (TFH).
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              Type I interferons (alpha/beta) in immunity and autoimmunity.

              The significance of type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) in biology and medicine renders research on their activities continuously relevant to our understanding of normal and abnormal (auto) immune responses. This relevance is bolstered by discoveries that unambiguously establish IFN-alpha/beta, among the multitude of cytokines, as dominant in defining qualitative and quantitative characteristics of innate and adaptive immune processes. Recent advances elucidating the biology of these key cytokines include better definition of their complex signaling pathways, determination of their importance in modifying the effects of other cytokines, the role of Toll-like receptors in their induction, their major cellular producers, and their broad and diverse impact on both cellular and humoral immune responses. Consequently, the role of IFN-alpha/beta in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity remains at the forefront of scientific inquiry and has begun to illuminate the mechanisms by which these molecules promote or inhibit systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
                Nat Rev Drug Discov
                Springer Nature
                1474-1776
                1474-1784
                January 12 2018
                January 12 2018
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrd.2017.243
                5906799
                29326426
                © 2018
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