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      Characterization of the Promoter-Directing Expression of Growth Hormone in a Monocyte Cell Line

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          Abstract

          Previous work from our laboratory has shown that cells of the immune system produce a growth hormone (GH) molecule similar to that produced by the pituitary. In the present study, using Southern analysis of RT-PCR products and sequencing of cloned cDNA molecules, we demonstrate that lymphoid cell lines utilize the same promoter and first exon as the pituitary somatotrope. To identify the cis-elements involved in transcriptional regulation of immune cell-derived GH, we have coupled rat GH promoter fragments to a luciferase reporter gene and transfected a monocyte cell line (P-388) by electroporation. The results suggest the presence of both positive (–299/–193 bp) and negative (–193/–107 bp) regulatory elements. The same constructs transfected in the pituitary cell line, GH3, in contrast to the monocyte cell line, showed a gradual decrease in luciferase expression. The overexpression of GHF-1 or GHF-2 resulted in a modest but significant reduction in rat GH promoter activity in the P-388 cell line. Taken together, the data suggest that immune cells utilize the same first exon and promoter sequence for the expression of monocyte GH as that reported for the expression of pituitary GH. Further, it appears that sequences between –299 and –107 bp are important in the regulation of the promoter where different transcription factors may be recruited to promote GH expression in a monocyte cell line.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Nonpituitary human prolactin gene transcription is independent of Pit-1 and differentially controlled in lymphocytes and in endometrial stroma

           B Gellersen (1994)
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            A highly divergent HIV-2-related isolate

            It has been suggested that the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency virus from rhesus macaques (SIVmac) evolved from the sooty mangabey virus SIVsm (ref. 1). We now describe an HIV-2-related isolate, HIV-2-D205, from a healthy Ghanaian woman that is genetically equidistant to the prototypic HIV-2 strains and to SIVsm and SIVmac. Supported by the observation that HIV-2D205 differs in a step of envelope glycoprotein processing, our data indicate that it could represent an alternative HIV-2 subtype and that viruses of the HIV-2/SIVsm/SIVmac group could have already infected humans before HIV-2 and SIVsm/SIVmac diverged.
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              Expression of immunoreactive growth hormone in leukocytes in vivo

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                2000
                April 2000
                05 April 2000
                : 7
                : 3
                : 126-134
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Ala., and bDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA
                Article
                26430 Neuroimmunomodulation 2000;7:126–134
                10.1159/000026430
                10754400
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 42, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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