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      Suitability of PLA/TCP for fused deposition modeling

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      Rapid Prototyping Journal
      Emerald

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          Processing technologies for poly(lactic acid)

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            Mechanical properties and cell cultural response of polycaprolactone scaffolds designed and fabricated via fused deposition modeling.

            A number of different processing techniques have been developed to design and fabricate three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications. The imperfection of the current techniques has encouraged the use of a rapid prototyping technology known as fused deposition modeling (FDM). Our results show that FDM allows the design and fabrication of highly reproducible bioresorbable 3D scaffolds with a fully interconnected pore network. The mechanical properties and in vitro biocompatibility of polycaprolactone scaffolds with a porosity of 61 +/- 1% and two matrix architectures were studied. The honeycomb-like pores had a size falling within the range of 360 x 430 x 620 microm. The scaffolds with a 0/60/120 degrees lay-down pattern had a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in air of 41.9 +/- 3.5 and 3.1 +/- 0.1 MPa, respectively, and a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in simulated physiological conditions (a saline solution at 37 degrees C) of 29.4 +/- 4.0 and 2.3 +/- 0.2 MPa, respectively. In comparison, the scaffolds with a 0/72/144/36/108 degrees lay-down pattern had a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in air of 20.2 +/- 1.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.1 MPa, respectively, and a compressive stiffness and a 1% offset yield strength in simulated physiological conditions (a saline solution at 37 degrees C) of 21.5 +/- 2.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 MPa, respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the five-angle scaffolds had significantly lower stiffness and 1% offset yield strengths under compression loading than those with a three-angle pattern under both testing conditions (p < or = 0.05). The obtained stress-strain curves for both scaffold architectures demonstrate the typical behavior of a honeycomb structure undergoing deformation. In vitro studies were conducted with primary human fibroblasts and periosteal cells. Light, environmental scanning electron, and confocal laser microscopy as well as immunohistochemistry showed cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production on the polycaprolactone surface in the 1st culturing week. Over a period of 3-4 weeks in a culture, the fully interconnected scaffold architecture was completely 3D-filled by cellular tissue. Our cell culture study shows that fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells can proliferate, differentiate, and produce a cellular tissue in an entirely interconnected 3D polycaprolactone matrix. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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              Design of porous scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering using a three-dimensional fiber-deposition technique.

              In this study, we present and characterize a fiber deposition technique for producing three-dimensional poly(ethylene glycol)-terephthalate-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEGT/PBT) block co-polymer scaffolds with a 100% interconnecting pore network for engineering of articular cartilage. The technique allowed us to "design-in" desired scaffold characteristics layer by layer by accurately controlling the deposition of molten co-polymer fibers from a pressure-driven syringe onto a computer controlled x-y-z table. By varying PEGT/PBT composition, porosity and pore geometry, 3D-deposited scaffolds were produced with a range of mechanical properties. The equilibrium modulus and dynamic stiffness ranged between 0.05-2.5 and 0.16-4.33 MPa, respectively, and were similar to native articular cartilage explants (0.27 and 4.10 MPa, respectively). 3D-deposited scaffolds seeded with bovine articular chondrocytes supported a homogeneous cell distribution and subsequent cartilage-like tissue formation following in vitro culture as well as subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. This was demonstrated by the presence of articular cartilage extra cellular matrix constituents (glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen) throughout the interconnected pore volume. Similar results were achieved with respect to the attachment of expanded human articular chondrocytes, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of viable cells after 5 days dynamic seeding. The processing methods and model scaffolds developed in this study provide a useful method to further investigate the effects of scaffold composition and pore architecture on articular cartilage tissue formation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Rapid Prototyping Journal
                Rapid Prototyping Journal
                Emerald
                1355-2546
                September 28 2012
                September 28 2012
                : 18
                : 6
                : 500-507
                Article
                10.1108/13552541211272045
                e4b8af05-8a01-42dc-b7bd-b25bb8e40b31
                © 2012
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