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      The Controversial Role of Human Gut Lachnospiraceae

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          Abstract

          The complex polymicrobial composition of human gut microbiota plays a key role in health and disease. Lachnospiraceae belong to the core of gut microbiota, colonizing the intestinal lumen from birth and increasing, in terms of species richness and their relative abundances during the host’s life. Although, members of Lachnospiraceae are among the main producers of short-chain fatty acids, different taxa of Lachnospiraceae are also associated with different intra- and extraintestinal diseases. Their impact on the host physiology is often inconsistent across different studies. Here, we discuss changes in Lachnospiraceae abundances according to health and disease. With the aim of harnessing Lachnospiraceae to promote human health, we also analyze how nutrients from the host diet can influence their growth and how their metabolites can, in turn, influence host physiology.

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          Most cited references206

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          Structure, Function and Diversity of the Healthy Human Microbiome

          Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin, and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, environment, host genetics, and early microbial exposure have all been implicated. Accordingly, to characterize the ecology of human-associated microbial communities, the Human Microbiome Project has analyzed the largest cohort and set of distinct, clinically relevant body habitats to date. We found the diversity and abundance of each habitat’s signature microbes to vary widely even among healthy subjects, with strong niche specialization both within and among individuals. The project encountered an estimated 81–99% of the genera, enzyme families, and community configurations occupied by the healthy Western microbiome. Metagenomic carriage of metabolic pathways was stable among individuals despite variation in community structure, and ethnic/racial background proved to be one of the strongest associations of both pathways and microbes with clinical metadata. These results thus delineate the range of structural and functional configurations normal in the microbial communities of a healthy population, enabling future characterization of the epidemiology, ecology, and translational applications of the human microbiome.
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            A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing.

            To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
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              From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Bacterial Metabolites.

              A compelling set of links between the composition of the gut microbiota, the host diet, and host physiology has emerged. Do these links reflect cause-and-effect relationships, and what might be their mechanistic basis? A growing body of work implicates microbially produced metabolites as crucial executors of diet-based microbial influence on the host. Here, we will review data supporting the diverse functional roles carried out by a major class of bacterial metabolites, the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs can directly activate G-coupled-receptors, inhibit histone deacetylases, and serve as energy substrates. They thus affect various physiological processes and may contribute to health and disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                microorganisms
                Microorganisms
                MDPI
                2076-2607
                15 April 2020
                April 2020
                : 8
                : 4
                : 573
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy; mirco.vacca@ 123456uniba.it (M.V.); francesco.calabrese@ 123456uniba.it (F.M.C.); maria.deangelis@ 123456uniba.it (M.D.A.)
                [2 ]Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, 70121 Bari, Italy
                [3 ]Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen, 39100 Bolzano, Italy; marco.gobbetti@ 123456unibz.it
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: giuseppe.celano@ 123456uniba.it (G.C.); piero.portincasa@ 123456uniba.it (P.P.); Tel.: +39-080-5442950 (G.C.); Tel.: +39-0805478892 (P.P.)
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0813-169X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3805-7681
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0176-7046
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5359-1471
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2010-884X
                Article
                microorganisms-08-00573
                10.3390/microorganisms8040573
                7232163
                32326636
                e4c68e87-2c12-400b-a581-1f2a1c4f0494
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 27 February 2020
                : 13 April 2020
                Categories
                Review

                lachnospiraceae,gut microbiota,gut microbial pathways,gut microbial metabolites,health,disease

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