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      Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway in the Protective Effect of Pioglitazone on Experimental Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background:

          In vitro experiments have revealed that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway is involved in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) by induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Evidence showed that, in other disease models, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of the expression and activity of TLR4. However, the interaction between PPAR-γ and TLR4 in IgAN has not been fully studied both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explored whether TLR4 pathway attributed to the progression of IgAN in experimental rats.

          Methods:

          Bovine gamma globulin was used to establish IgAN model. Fifty-four Lewis rats were randomly divided into six groups: Control TAK242, IgAN TAK242, toll-like receptor 4 inhibitor (TAK242) groups (rats were administrated with TLR4 inhibitor, TAK242) and Control Pio, IgAN Pio, Pio groups (rats were administrated with PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone). Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer. Renal histopathological changes were observed after hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the IgA deposition in glomeruli was measured by immunofluorescence staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect TLR4 and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) message ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression in renal tissues. Results were presented as mean ± standard deviation. Differences between groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance.

          Results:

          Compared to normal rats, experimental rats showed higher ACR (4.45 ± 1.33 mg/mmol vs. 2.89 ± 0.96 mg/mmol, P < 0.05), obvious IgA deposition with mesangial hypercellularity, hyperplasia of mesangial matrix accompanied by increased serum IL-1β (48.28 ± 13.49 pg/ml vs. 35.56 ± 7.41pg/ml, P < 0.05), and renal expression of IL-1β and TLR4. The biochemical parameters and renal pathological injury were relieved in both TAK242 group and Pio group. The expressions of renal tissue TLR4, IL-1β, and serum IL-1β were decreased in rats treated with TAK242, and the expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein was significantly reduced in Pio group compared to IgAN Pio group (1.22 ± 0.28 vs. 1.72 ± 0.45, P < 0.01, and 0.12 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.05, P < 0.01).

          Conclusions:

          Our study proves that inflammation mediated by TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in the progression of IgAN in rat models. Moreover, pioglitazone can inhibit the expression of TLR4 in IgAN.

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          Most cited references40

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          TLR4 activation mediates kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.

          Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) may activate innate immunity through the engagement of TLRs by endogenous ligands. TLR4 expressed within the kidney is a potential mediator of innate activation and inflammation. Using a mouse model of kidney IRI, we demonstrated a significant increase in TLR4 expression by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and infiltrating leukocytes within the kidney following ischemia. TLR4 signaling through the MyD88-dependent pathway was required for the full development of kidney IRI, as both TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were protected against kidney dysfunction, tubular damage, neutrophil and macrophage accumulation, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In vitro, WT kidney TECs produced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and underwent apoptosis after ischemia. These effects were attenuated in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) TECs. In addition, we demonstrated upregulation of the endogenous ligands high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), hyaluronan, and biglycan, providing circumstantial evidence that one or more of these ligands may be the source of TLR4 activation. To determine the relative contribution of TLR4 expression by parenchymal cells or leukocytes to kidney damage during IRI, we generated chimeric mice. TLR4(-/-) mice engrafted with WT hematopoietic cells had significantly lower serum creatinine and less tubular damage than WT mice reconstituted with TLR4(-/-) BM, suggesting that TLR4 signaling in intrinsic kidney cells plays the dominant role in mediating kidney damage.
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            Long-term renal survival and related risk factors in patients with IgA nephropathy: results from a cohort of 1155 cases in a Chinese adult population.

            We sought to identify the long-term renal survival rate and related risk factors of progression to renal failure in Chinese adult patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and to quantify the effects of proteinuria during the follow-up on outcome in patients with IgAN. Patients with biopsy-proven primary IgAN in the Nanjing Glomerulonephritis Registry were studied. Renal survival and the relationships between clinical parameters and renal outcomes were assessed. One thousand one hundred and fifty-five patients were enrolled in this study. The 10-, 15- and 20-year cumulative renal survival rates, calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, were 83, 74 and 64%, respectively. At the time of biopsy, proteinuria>1.0 g/day [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, P 1.0 g/day were associated with a 9.4-fold risk than patients with TA-P<1.0 g/day (P<0.001) and 46.5-fold risk than those with TA-P<0.5 g/day (P<0.001). Moreover, patients who achieved TA-P<0.5 g/day benefit much more than those with TA-P between 0.5 and 1.0 g/day (HR 13.1, P<0.001). Thirty-six percent of Chinese adult patients with IgAN progress to end stage renal disease within 20 years. Five clinical features-higher proteinuria, hypertension, impaired renal function, hypoproteinemia and hyperuricemia-are independent predictors of an unfavorable renal outcome. The basic goal of anti-proteinuric therapy for Chinese patients is to lower proteinuria<1.0 g/day and the optimal goal is to lower proteinuria to <0.5 g/day.
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              The role of Toll-like receptors in renal diseases.

              Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a key role in innate immunity. These receptors recognize both pathogen-associated molecular patterns and molecules that are released from damaged tissue. TLRs mediate signal transduction pathways through the activation of transcription factors that regulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and are required for the development of adaptive immune responses. TLRs might have an important role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases: their exaggerated activation is associated with ischemic kidney damage, acute kidney injury, end-stage renal failure, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, acute renal transplant rejection and delayed allograft function. As the results of previous studies concerning the role of TLRs in renal diseases are conflicting, further work is needed to determine the exact role of these receptors and to evaluate strategies to prevent TLR-mediated local inflammation. This Review discusses the evidence supporting a role for TLRs in contrasting bacterial infections and in causing or aggravating renal conditions when TLR activation leads to a harmful inflammatory response.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chin Med J (Engl)
                Chin. Med. J
                CMJ
                Chinese Medical Journal
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0366-6999
                20 April 2017
                : 130
                : 8
                : 906-913
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China
                [2 ]Department of Nephrology, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, China
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Zhi-Bin Ye, Department of Nephrology, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China E-Mail: yezhibin2013@ 123456126.com
                Article
                CMJ-130-906
                10.4103/0366-6999.204101
                5407036
                28397719
                e4d0e2dc-1441-4b57-af49-2abf06af6cc5
                Copyright: © 2017 Chinese Medical Journal

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

                History
                : 30 November 2016
                Categories
                Original Article

                glomerulonephritis,immunoglobulin a,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ,toll-like receptor 4

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