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      A Review of Flaviviruses that Have No Known Arthropod Vector

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          Abstract

          Most viruses in the genus Flavivirus are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts, but some are maintained in arthropod- or vertebrate-restricted transmission cycles. Flaviviruses maintained by vertebrate-only transmission are commonly referred to as no known vector (NKV) flaviviruses. Fourteen species and two subtypes of NKV flaviviruses are recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), and Tamana bat virus potentially belongs to this group. NKV flaviviruses have been isolated in nature almost exclusively from bats and rodents; exceptions are the two isolates of Dakar bat virus recovered from febrile humans and the recent isolations of Sokoluk virus from field-collected ticks, which raises questions as to whether it should remain classified as an NKV flavivirus. There is evidence to suggest that two other NKV flaviviruses, Entebbe bat virus and Yokose virus, may also infect arthropods in nature. The best characterized bat- and rodent-associated NKV flaviviruses are Rio Bravo and Modoc viruses, respectively, but both have received limited research attention compared to many of their arthropod-infecting counterparts. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of NKV flaviviruses, placing a particular emphasis on their classification, host range, geographic distribution, replication kinetics, pathogenesis, transmissibility and molecular biology.

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          Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus.

          We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses.
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            Epidemic arboviral diseases: priorities for research and public health.

            For decades, arboviral diseases were considered to be only minor contributors to global mortality and disability. As a result, low priority was given to arbovirus research investment and related public health infrastructure. The past five decades, however, have seen an unprecedented emergence of epidemic arboviral diseases (notably dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika virus disease) resulting from the triad of the modern world: urbanisation, globalisation, and international mobility. The public health emergency of Zika virus, and the threat of global spread of yellow fever, combined with the resurgence of dengue and chikungunya, constitute a wake-up call for governments, academia, funders, and WHO to strengthen programmes and enhance research in aedes-transmitted diseases. The common features of these diseases should stimulate similar research themes for diagnostics, vaccines, biological targets and immune responses, environmental determinants, and vector control measures. Combining interventions known to be effective against multiple arboviral diseases will offer the most cost-effective and sustainable strategy for disease reduction. New global alliances are needed to enable the combination of efforts and resources for more effective and timely solutions.
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              Proteolytic activation of tick-borne encephalitis virus by furin.

              Flaviviruses are assembled intracellularly in an immature form containing heterodimers of two envelope proteins, E and prM. Shortly before the virion exits the cell, prM is cleaved by a cellular enzyme, and this processing step can be blocked by treatment with agents that raise the pH of exocytic compartments. We carried out in vivo and in vitro studies with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus to investigate the possible role of furin in this process as well as the functional consequences of prM cleavage. We found that prM in immature virions can be correctly cleaved in vitro by recombinant bovine furin but that efficient cleavage occurs only after exposure of the virion to mildly acidic pH. The data suggest that exposure to an acidic environment induces an irreversible structural change that renders the cleavage site accessible to the enzyme. Cleavage by furin in vitro resulted in biological activation, as shown by a 100-fold increase in specific infectivity, the acquisition of membrane fusion and hemagglutination activity, and the ability of the envelope proteins to undergo low-pH-induced structural rearrangements characteristic of mature virions. In vivo, prM cleavage was blocked by a furin inhibitor, and infection of the furin-deficient cell line LoVo yielded only immature virions, suggesting that furin is essential for cleavage activation of flaviviruses.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                21 June 2017
                June 2017
                : 9
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK; aef24@ 123456cam.ac.uk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: blitvich@ 123456iastate.edu ; Tel.: +1-515-294-9861; Fax: +1-515-294-8500
                Article
                viruses-09-00154
                10.3390/v9060154
                5490829
                28635667
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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