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      Pollen host selection by predominantly alpine bee species of the genera Andrena, Panurginus, Dufourea, Megachile, Hoplitis and Osmia (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

      Alpine Entomology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The pollen host selection by 19 bee species, which have their main Central European distribution in the Alps, was assessed by microscopical analysis of the scopal contents of about 900 females from museum and private collections. The results of the pollen analyses were complemented by a literature survey as well as by field observations. The examined species widely vary in pollen host spectrum and specialization, revealing a fascinating diversity in bee host plant use. Observed patterns of host plant choice range from narrow specialists, which exclusively collect pollen from the flowers of a single plant genus, to pronounced generalists, which harvest pollen from the flowers of up to 17 different plant families. A quantitative character is given to separate the morphologically very similar females of Panurginus herzi and P. montanus.

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          Floral resource utilization by solitary bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and exploitation of their stored foods by natural enemies.

          Bees are phytophagous insects that exhibit recurrent ecological specializations related to factors generally different from those discussed for other phytophagous insects. Pollen specialists have undergone extensive radiations, and specialization is not always a derived state. Floral host associations are conserved in some bee lineages. In others, various species specialize on different host plants that are phenotypically similar in presenting predictably abundant floral resources. The nesting of solitary bees in localized areas influences the intensity of interactions with enemies and competitors. Abiotic factors do not always explain the intraspecific variation in the spatial distribution of solitary bees. Foods stored by bees attract many natural enemies, which may shape diverse facets of nesting and foraging behavior. Parasitism has evolved repeatedly in some, but not all, bee lineages. Available evidence suggests that cleptoparasitic lineages are most speciose in temperate zones. Female parasites frequently have a suite of characters that can be described as a masculinized feminine form. The evolution of resource specialization (including parasitism) in bees presents excellent opportunities to investigate phenotypic mechanisms responsible for evolutionary change.
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            Pollen hosts of western palaearctic bees of the genus Colletes (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): the Asteraceae paradox

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              Host-Plant Specialization in Western Palearctic Anthidine Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Megachilidae)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Alpine Entomology
                AlpEnt
                Pensoft Publishers
                2535-0889
                October 22 2018
                October 22 2018
                : 2
                : 101-113
                Article
                10.3897/alpento.2.29250
                © 2018

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