Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries. To examine whether or not plasma antigen levels of MCP-1 are related to restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), the plasma antigen levels of MCP-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pg/ml) before, 24 and 48 h, and 3 months after elective PTCA for stable exertional angina performed between June 1997 and March 1998. Restenosis was defined as recurrence of stenosis greater than 50% of the diameter in the dilated segment at 3-month follow-up angiography. There were no differences in plasma MCP-1 antigen levels before and at 24 h after PTCA between restenosis (R; n=27) and no-restenosis (N; n=43) groups (R vs N: 633+/-35 vs 589+/-34, and 669+/-41 vs 575+/-36 pg/ml before and at 24 h after PTCA, respectively), but plasma MCP-1 antigen levels were higher at 48 h and 3 months after PTCA in the R than in N group (R vs N: 678+/-41 vs 558+/-35, and 735+/-35 vs 571+/-32 pg/ml at 48 h and 3 months after PTCA, respectively). These data suggest that the MCP-1 production and macrophage accumulation in the balloon-injured site is partially associated with restenosis after PTCA.