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      The development of meibomian glands in mice

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          The purpose of this study was to characterize the natural history of meibomian gland morphogenesis in the mouse.


          Embryonic (E) and post natal (P) C57Bl/6 mouse pups were obtained at E18.5, P0, P1, P3, P5, P8, P15, and P60. Eyelids were fixed and processed for en bloc staining with Phalloidin/DAPI to identify gland morphogenesis, or frozen for immunohistochemistry staining with Oil red O (ORO) to identify lipid and antibodies specific against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to identify meibocyte differentiation. Samples were then evaluated using a Zeiss 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope or Nikon epi-fluorescent microscope. Tissues from adult mice (2 month-old) were also collected for western blotting.


          Meibomian gland morphogenesis was first detected at E18.5 with the formation of an epithelial placode within the fused eyelid margin. Invagination of the epithelium into the eyelid was detected at P0. From P1 to P3 there was continued extension of the epithelium into the eyelid. ORO and PPARγ staining was first detected at P3, localized to the central core of the epithelial cord thus forming the presumptive ductal lumen. Ductal branching was first detected at P5 associated with acinar differentiation identified by ORO and PPARγ staining. Adult meibomian glands were observed by P15. Western blotting of meibomian gland proteins identified a 50 kDa and a 72 kDa band that stained with antibodies specific to PPARγ.


          We have demonstrated that meibomian gland development bears distinct similarities to hair development with the formation of an epithelial placode and expression of PPARγ co-incident with lipid synthesis and meibocyte differentiation.

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          Most cited references 20

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          PPAR gamma is required for the differentiation of adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro.

          The process of adipogenesis is known to involve the interplay of several transcription factors. Activation of one of these factors, the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR gamma, is known to promote fat cell differentiation in vitro. Whether PPAR gamma is required for this process in vivo has remained an open question because a viable loss-of-function model for PPAR gamma has been lacking. We demonstrate here that mice chimeric for wild-type and PPAR gamma null cells show little or no contribution of null cells to adipose tissue, whereas most other organs examined do not require PPAR gamma for proper development. In vitro, the differentiation of ES cells into fat is shown to be dependent on PPAR gamma gene dosage. These data provide direct evidence that PPAR gamma is essential for the formation of fat.
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            Skin stem cells: rising to the surface

             Elaine Fuchs (2008)
            The skin epidermis and its appendages provide a protective barrier that is impermeable to harmful microbes and also prevents dehydration. To perform their functions while being confronted with the physicochemical traumas of the environment, these tissues undergo continual rejuvenation through homeostasis, and, in addition, they must be primed to undergo wound repair in response to injury. The skin's elixir for maintaining tissue homeostasis, regenerating hair, and repairing the epidermis after injury is its stem cells, which reside in the adult hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and epidermis. Stem cells have the remarkable capacity to both self-perpetuate and also give rise to the differentiating cells that constitute one or more tissues. In recent years, scientists have begun to uncover the properties of skin stem cells and unravel the mysteries underlying their remarkable capacity to perform these feats. In this paper, I outline the basic lineages of the skin epithelia and review some of the major findings about mammalian skin epithelial stem cells that have emerged in the past five years.
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              Inhibition of adipogenesis through MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma.

               P Sarraf,  E Hu,  T. J. Kim (1996)
              Adipocyte differentiation is an important component of obesity and other metabolic diseases. This process is strongly inhibited by many mitogens and oncogenes. Several growth factors that inhibit fat cell differentiation caused mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the dominant adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and reduction of its transcriptional activity. Expression of PPARgamma with a nonphosphorylatable mutation at this site (serine-112) yielded cells with increased sensitivity to ligand-induced adipogenesis and resistance to inhibition of differentiation by mitogens. These results indicate that covalent modification of PPARgamma by serum and growth factors is a major regulator of the balance between cell growth and differentiation in the adipose cell lineage.

                Author and article information

                Mol Vis
                Molecular Vision
                Molecular Vision
                18 June 2010
                : 16
                : 1132-1140
                [1 ]Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California Irvine, CA
                [2 ]Ophthalmology Department, University of Cincinnati, OH
                [3 ]Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton, CA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: James V. Jester, Ph.D., Gavin Herbert Eye Institute, University of California Irvine Medical Center, 101 The City Drive, Orange, CA, 92868; Phone: (714) 456-5022; FAX: (714) 456-5073; email: jjester@ 123456uci.edu
                125 2010MOLVIS0163
                Copyright © 2010 Molecular Vision.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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