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      New treatments for genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C – focus on simeprevir

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          Abstract

          Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes end-stage liver diseases and hepato cellular carcinoma. In the USA, Canada, and Japan, simeprevir – one of the second-generation HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors – in combination with peginterferon α-2a or 2b plus ribavirin has recently been approved for HCV genotype 1-infected patients and is now used in daily clinical practice. This review summarizes the mechanism of action of simeprevir and the results of clinical trials of simeprevir and peginterferon plus ribavirin for HCV genotype 1 patients. In general, the simeprevir and peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment is highly effective and its adverse events are similar to those of peginterferon plus ribavirin only, the exception being milder, reversible jaundice. In the near future, the development of interferon-free regimens with simeprevir is expected. Careful attention should be paid to new results of clinical trials with simeprevir.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Natural history of chronic hepatitis C.

          Much controversy surrounds the issue of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Many authorities view the disease as inexorably progressive with a high probability of advancing over time to cirrhosis and occasionally hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, therefore, likely to be responsible for causing death. Others regard chronic hepatitis C as having a variable outcome, the majority of infected persons not dying from the disease, but more likely from the comorbid conditions that so often accompany infection by this agent, or from more common medical conditions. Disagreements probably derive from the manner of conduct of the study and the populations studied. Efforts to determine natural history are handicapped by the primary characteristics of the disease, namely that its onset rarely is recognized and its course is prolonged exceedingly. Thus, different outcomes have come from retrospective rather than from prospective studies, but both have concluded that at least 20% of chronically infected adults develop cirrhosis within 20 years. More recent studies that used a retrospective/prospective approach, focusing largely on young infected individuals, have produced different results. Among these young people, particularly young women, spontaneous resolution of the viral infection is more common than previously thought and cirrhosis has been identified in 5% or fewer of them. The major failing for all groups studied, young and old, is that natural history studies have rarely exceeded the first 2 decades, so that outcome beyond this time is not known, other than through modeling. Several host-related and extraneous factors probably affect the natural history.
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            Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients.

            Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We compared the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2a (peginterferon alfa-2a) plus either ribavirin or placebo with those of interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in patients who were also infected with HIV. A total of 868 persons who were infected with both HIV and HCV and who had not previously been treated with interferon or ribavirin were randomly assigned to receive one of three regimens: peginterferon alfa-2a (180 microg per week) plus ribavirin (800 mg per day), peginterferon alfa-2a plus placebo, or interferon alfa-2a (3 million IU three times a week) plus ribavirin. Patients were treated for 48 weeks and followed for an additional 24 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response (defined as a serum HCV RNA level below 50 IU per milliliter at the end of follow-up, at week 72). The overall rate of sustained virologic response was significantly higher among the recipients of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin than among those assigned to interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin (40 percent vs. 12 percent, P<0.001), or peginterferon alfa-2a plus placebo (40 percent vs. 20 percent, P<0.001). Among patients infected with HCV genotype 1, the rates of sustained virologic response were 29 percent with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, 14 percent with peginterferon alfa-2a plus placebo, and 7 percent with interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. The corresponding rates among patients infected with HCV genotype 2 or 3 were 62 percent, 36 percent, and 20 percent. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were more common among patients treated with regimens that contained peginterferon alfa-2a, and anemia was more common among patients treated with regimens containing ribavirin. Among patients infected with both HIV and HCV, the combination of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was significantly more effective than either interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin or peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons.

              Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a cause of major complications in persons who are also infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the treatment of HCV infection in such persons has been associated with a high rate of intolerance and a low rate of response. We conducted a multicenter, randomized trial comparing peginterferon plus ribavirin with interferon plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in persons coinfected with HIV. A total of 66 subjects were randomly assigned to receive 180 microg of peginterferon alfa-2a weekly for 48 weeks, and 67 subjects were assigned to receive 6 million IU of interferon alfa-2a three times weekly for 12 weeks followed by 3 million IU three times weekly for 36 weeks. Both groups received ribavirin according to a dose-escalation schedule. At week 24, subjects who did not have a virologic response (those who had an HCV RNA level greater than or equal to 60 IU per milliliter) underwent liver biopsy, and medications were continued in subjects with either a virologic response or histologic improvement. Treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin was associated with a significantly higher rate of sustained virologic response (an HCV RNA level of less than 60 IU per milliliter 24 weeks after completion of therapy) than was treatment with interferon and ribavirin (27 percent vs. 12 percent, P=0.03). In the group given peginterferon and ribavirin, only 14 percent of subjects with HCV genotype 1 infection had a sustained virologic response (7 of 51), as compared with 73 percent of subjects with an HCV genotype other than 1 (11 of 15, P<0.001). Histologic responses were observed in 35 percent of subjects with no virologic response who underwent liver biopsy. In persons infected with HIV, the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin is superior to the combination of interferon and ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. These regimens may provide clinical benefit even in the absence of virologic clearance. The marked discrepancy in the rates of sustained virologic response between HCV genotypes indicates that strategies are needed to improve the outcome in persons infected with HCV genotype 1. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2014
                24 May 2014
                : 10
                : 387-394
                Affiliations
                Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tatsuo Kanda, Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8677, Japan, Tel +81 43 226 2086, Fax +81 43 226 2088, Email kandat-cib@ 123456umin.ac.jp ; kanda2t@ 123456yahoo.co.jp
                tcrm-10-387
                10.2147/TCRM.S50170
                4043814
                © 2014 Kanda et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                tmc435, hepatocellular carcinoma, hcv ns3/4a protease inhibitor, hepatitis c virus

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