RNA modification is a type of post-transcriptional modification that regulates important cellular pathways, such as the processing and metabolism of RNA. The most abundant form of methylation modification is RNA N6-methyladenine (m6A), which plays various post-transcriptional regulatory roles in cellular biological functions, including cell differentiation, embryonic development and disease occurrence. Bones play a pivotal role in the skeletal system as they support and protect muscles and other organs, facilitate movement and ensure haematopoiesis. The development and remodelling of bones require a delicate and accurate regulation of gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms that involve modifications of histone, DNA and RNA. The present review discusses the enzymes and proteins involved in mRNA m6A methylation modification and summarises current research progress and the mechanisms of mRNA m6A methylation in common orthopaedic diseases, including osteoporosis, arthritis and osteosarcoma.