Objective To explore the prevalence of ametropia in primary and middle school students in Kaiyuan, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, to provide a scientific reference for local prevention and control of juvenile myopia.
Methods In September 2021, 38 534 students from 76 primary and secondary schools in Kaiyuan, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, were selected. The students underwent vision inspection and computer optometry examination. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of myopia across gender grade, ethnic group and residence.
Results The prevalence of myopia in primary and secondary schools students was 40.0%, the prevalence of hyperopia was 17.7%, and that of astigmatism was 21.2%. The prevalence of poor vision was 50.7%, and the total rate of wearing glasses was 17.2%. The prevalence of myopia among girls (45.7%) was higher than that among boys (34.5%) (χ 2 = 520.68). The prevalence of myopia among students was higher in urban areas (50. 1%) than rural areas (28.4%) (χ 2 = 1 882.13). The prevalence of myopia in grades 1–9 increased with school grade (χ 2 trend =7 151.41). Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of myopia (χ 2 = 1 299.26), hyperopia (χ 2 = 164.13) and astigmatism (χ 2 = 1 091.37) among ethnic groups ( P<0.01).
Conclusion The prevalence of myopia and astigmatism in primary and middle school students in Kaiyuan, increases with school grade, and the prevalence of myopia varies among ethnic groups. For juvenile myopia prevention and control, attention should be paid to the effects of urban and rural differences, gender differences, and ethnic differences, in a scientific, effective and comprehensive manner.
【摘要】 目的 了解云南省红河州开远市中小学生视力与屈光不正现状, 为当地开展青少年近视防控工作提供科学参 考。 方法 2021 年 9 月, 采用整群抽样方法抽取云南省红河州开远市 76 所中小学 38 534 名学生开展调査, 对纳人对象开 展远视力、非睫状肌麻痹下电脑验光检査。采用 χ 2 检验比较不同性别、年级、民族及城乡之间屈光不正患病率的差异。 结果 中小学生近视率为 40.0%, 远视率为 17.7%, 散光率为 21.2%, 视力不良率为 50.7%, 戴镜率为 17.2%。女生近视率 (45.7%) 髙于男生 (34.5%) (χ 2 = 520.68), 城区学生近视率 (50.1%) 髙于农村地区(28.4%) (χ 2 = 1 882.13), 一至九年级学 生近视率随年级升髙而升髙(χ 2 趋势=7 151.41), 不同民族间近视、远视及散光患病率差异均有统计学意义 (χ 2 值分别为 1 299.26, 164.13, 1 091.37, P 值均<0.01)。 结论 开远市中小学生近视及散光率随年级升髙呈上升趋势, 各民族之间近视 患病率差异有统计学意义。近视防控要重视城乡、性别差异, 科学有效地开展综合防控。