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      3D Ultrasound Imaging: Fast and Cost-effective Morphometry of Musculoskeletal Tissue


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          The developmental goal of 3D ultrasound imaging (3DUS) is to engineer a modality to perform 3D morphological ultrasound analysis of human muscles. 3DUS images are constructed from calibrated freehand 2D B-mode ultrasound images, which are positioned into a voxel array. Ultrasound (US) imaging allows quantification of muscle size, fascicle length, and angle of pennation. These morphological variables are important determinants of muscle force and length range of force exertion. The presented protocol describes an approach to determine volume and fascicle length of m. vastus lateralis and m. gastrocnemius medialis. 3DUS facilitates standardization using 3D anatomical references. This approach provides a fast and cost-effective approach for quantifying 3D morphology in skeletal muscles. In healthcare and sports, information on the morphometry of muscles is very valuable in diagnostics and/or follow-up evaluations after treatment or training.

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          Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM.

          Reliability, the consistency of a test or measurement, is frequently quantified in the movement sciences literature. A common metric is the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In addition, the SEM, which can be calculated from the ICC, is also frequently reported in reliability studies. However, there are several versions of the ICC, and confusion exists in the movement sciences regarding which ICC to use. Further, the utility of the SEM is not fully appreciated. In this review, the basics of classic reliability theory are addressed in the context of choosing and interpreting an ICC. The primary distinction between ICC equations is argued to be one concerning the inclusion (equations 2,1 and 2,k) or exclusion (equations 3,1 and 3,k) of systematic error in the denominator of the ICC equation. Inferential tests of mean differences, which are performed in the process of deriving the necessary variance components for the calculation of ICC values, are useful to determine if systematic error is present. If so, the measurement schedule should be modified (removing trials where learning and/or fatigue effects are present) to remove systematic error, and ICC equations that only consider random error may be safely used. The use of ICC values is discussed in the context of estimating the effects of measurement error on sample size, statistical power, and correlation attenuation. Finally, calculation and application of the SEM are discussed. It is shown how the SEM and its variants can be used to construct confidence intervals for individual scores and to determine the minimal difference needed to be exhibited for one to be confident that a true change in performance of an individual has occurred.
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            Muscle volume, MRI relaxation times (T2), and body composition after spaceflight.

            Postflight changes in muscle volume, calf muscle transverse relaxation time, and total body composition were measured in 4 crewmembers after a 17-day mission and in 14-16 crewmembers in multiple shuttle/Mir missions of 16- to 28-wk duration. During the 17-day mission, all muscle regions except the hamstrings significantly decreased 3-10% compared with baseline. During the shuttle/Mir missions, there were significant decreases in muscle volume (5-17%) in all muscle groups except the neck. These changes, which reached a new steady state by 4 mo of flight or less, were reversed within 30-60 days after landing. Postflight swelling and elevation of calf muscle transverse relaxation time persisted for several weeks after flight, which suggests possible muscle damage. In contrast to the 17-day flight, in which loss in fat, but not lean body mass, was found (25), losses in bone mineral content and lean body mass, but not fat, were seen after the longer shuttle/Mir missions. The percent losses in total body lean body mass and bone mineral content were similar at approximately 3.4-3.5%, whereas the pelvis demonstrated the largest regional bone loss at 13%.
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              Initial phase of maximal voluntary and electrically stimulated knee extension torque development at different knee angles.

              We investigated the capacity for torque development and muscle activation at the onset of fast voluntary isometric knee extensions at 30, 60, and 90 degrees knee angle. Experiments were performed in subjects (n = 7) who had high levels (>90%) of activation at the plateau of maximal voluntary contractions. During maximal electrical nerve stimulation (8 pulses at 300 Hz), the maximal rate of torque development (MRTD) and torque time integral over the first 40 ms (TTI40) changed in proportion with torque at the different knee angles (highest values at 60 degrees ). At each knee angle, voluntary MRTD and stimulated MRTD were similar (P 0.05) of knee angle and on average (all subjects and angles) only 40% of stimulated TTI40. However, among subjects, the averaged (across knee angles) values ranged from 10.3 +/- 3.1 to 83.3 +/- 3.2% and were positively related (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.05) to the knee-extensor surface EMG at the start of torque development. It was concluded that, although all subjects had high levels of voluntary activation at the plateau of maximal voluntary contraction, among subjects and independent of knee angle, the capacity for fast muscle activation varied substantially. Moreover, in all subjects, torque developed considerably faster during maximal electrical stimulation than during maximal voluntary effort. At different knee angles, stimulated MRTD and TTI40 changed in proportion with stimulated torque, but voluntary MRTD and TTI40 changed less than maximal voluntary torque.

                Author and article information

                J Vis Exp
                J Vis Exp
                Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE
                MyJove Corporation
                27 November 2017
                27 November 2017
                : 129
                : 55943
                1Laboratory for Myology, Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences
                2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences
                Author notes

                Correspondence to: Richard T. Jaspers at r.t.jaspers@ 123456vu.nl

                Copyright © 2017, Journal of Visualized Experiments

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/


                medicine,issue 129,3d ultrasound,skeletal muscle,muscle volume,architecture,muscle geometry,morphology,fascicle length,m. gastrocnemius medialis,m. quadriceps femoris,m. vastus lateralis


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