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Effect of Cu substitution on structures and electrochemical properties of Li[NiCo1−xCuxMn]1/3O2 as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

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      Abstract

      This study on Cu-doped Li[NiCoMn] 1/3O 2 provides support for reusing Cu as a beneficial dopant in the production of metal-doped Li[NiCoMn] 1/3O 2 from spent LIBs.

      Abstract

      Copper ions are one of the major associated metal ions present in the precursors of the synthesis of Li[NiCoMn] 1/3O 2 from the recovery of spent Li-ion batteries by wet chemical processes. To evaluate the feasibility of reusing Cu 2+ as a favourable dopant in Li[NiCoMn] 1/3O 2 instead of as usual removing it as an undesirable impurity, the effect of Cu-doping on the electrochemical behaviour of Li[NiCoMn] 1/3O 2 is investigated in this work. Li[NiCo 1−xCu xMn] 1/3O 2 ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) is synthesized through two steps, roasting the precursors obtained from carbonate co-precipitation, and their structures and electrochemical performances are systemically investigated. The results indicate that substitution of Co with Cu was successfully achieved without any detectable second phases. The initial discharge capacity of Li[NiCo 1−xCu xMn] 1/3O 2 gradually dropped with an increase of x but the rate property and capacity retention were remarkably enhanced. In particular, the capacity retention of the Li[NiCo 0.94Cu 0.06Mn] 1/3O 2 sample reached 95.87% within 50 cycles at a current density of 160 mA g −1. CV and EIS revealed that such improvements are ascribed to a higher Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge-transfer resistance derived from Cu 2+ doping. The results suggest that Cu can be used as a beneficial dopant to partially substitute Co in synthesizing Li[NiCoMn] 1/3O 2 from spent LIBs instead of having to remove it as an impurity.

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      Building better batteries.

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        Challenges in the development of advanced Li-ion batteries: a review

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          Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.

          Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ICHBD9
            Dalton Transactions
            Dalton Trans.
            Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
            1477-9226
            1477-9234
            2015
            2015
            : 44
            : 42
            : 18624-18631
            10.1039/C5DT02552D
            © 2015
            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5DT02552D

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