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      Emotion regulation and intervention in adults with autism spectrum disorder: a synthesis of the literature

      Advances in Autism

      Emerald Publishing

      Mental health, Emotion regulation, Autism spectrum disorder, Cognitive behaviour therapy, Behaviour therapy, Sensory processing

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Purpose

          Emotion regulation is an ongoing multiprocess phenomenon and is a challenging developmental task to acquire in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have different neurobiological profiles and emotion regulation problems. The purpose of this paper is to review recent literature to understand the neurobiological and psychological perspective of emotion regulation in ASD, while converging themes of psychosocial interventions and existing best practices on emotion regulation within this heterogeneous population are reviewed and discussed in consideration of intellectual disability (ID).

          Design/methodology/approach

          Review of recent literature and common empirically supported interventions addressing emotional regulation implemented in individuals with and without ASD, and with and without ID were included in the electronic database search through PubMed, EBSChost, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, GALE and SAGE. Search terms used included autism, ID, cognitive control, executive function, sensory processing/intervention, emotion regulation, cognitive behavior therapy, mindfulness, social stories, positive behavior support and behavior therapy.

          Findings

          Neural systems governing emotion regulation can be divided into “top-down” and “bottom-up” processing. Prefrontal cortex, cognitive and attentional control are critical for effective emotion regulation. Individuals with ASD, and with ID show impairments in these areas have problems with emotion regulation. Targeted psychosocial intervention need to consider bottom-up and top-down processes of emotion regulation, and that standardized interventions require adaptations.

          Originality/value

          There are limited studies looking into understanding the neurobiological and psychological perspective of emotion regulation in ASD and linking them to interventions. This review highlights psychosocial interventions that are important for further research, investigation and development as treatment in this population is limited.

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          Most cited references 105

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          Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD--a randomized, controlled trial.

          Deficits in executive functioning, including working memory (WM) deficits, have been suggested to be important in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). During 2002 to 2003, the authors conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the effect of improving WM by computerized, systematic practice of WM tasks. Included in the trial were 53 children with ADHD (9 girls; 15 of 53 inattentive subtype), aged 7 to 12 years, without stimulant medication. The compliance criterion (>20 days of training) was met by 44 subjects, 42 of whom were also evaluated at follow-up 3 months later. Participants were randomly assigned to use either the treatment computer program for training WM or a comparison program. The main outcome measure was the span-board task, a visuospatial WM task that was not part of the training program. For the span-board task, there was a significant treatment effect both post-intervention and at follow-up. In addition, there were significant effects for secondary outcome tasks measuring verbal WM, response inhibition, and complex reasoning. Parent ratings showed significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, both post-intervention and at follow-up. This study shows that WM can be improved by training in children with ADHD. This training also improved response inhibition and reasoning and resulted in a reduction of the parent-rated inattentive symptoms of ADHD.
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            Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functioning autism.

            An fMRI study was used to measure the brain activation of a group of adults with high-functioning autism compared to a Full Scale and Verbal IQ and age-matched control group during an n-back working memory task with letters. The behavioral results showed comparable performance, but the fMRI results suggested that the normal controls might use verbal codes to perform the task, while the adults with autism might use visual codes. The control group demonstrated more activation in the left than the right parietal regions, whereas the autism group showed more right lateralized activation in the prefrontal and parietal regions. The autism group also had more activation than the control group in the posterior regions including inferior temporal and occipital regions. The analysis of functional connectivity yielded similar patterns for the two groups with different hemispheric correlations. The temporal profile of the activity in the prefrontal regions was more correlated with the left parietal regions for the control group, whereas it was more correlated with the right parietal regions for the autism group.
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              Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion.

              A fundamental question about the relationship between cognition and emotion concerns the neural substrate underlying emotional self-regulation. To address this issue, brain activation was measured in normal male subjects while they either responded in a normal manner to erotic film excerpts or voluntarily attempted to inhibit the sexual arousal induced by viewing erotic stimuli. Results demonstrated that the sexual arousal experienced, in response to the erotic film excerpts, was associated with activation in "limbic" and paralimbic structures, such as the right amygdala, right anterior temporal pole, and hypothalamus. In addition, the attempted inhibition of the sexual arousal generated by viewing the erotic stimuli was associated with activation of the right superior frontal gyrus and right anterior cingulate gyrus. No activation was found in limbic areas. These findings reinforce the view that emotional self-regulation is normally implemented by a neural circuit comprising various prefrontal regions and subcortical limbic structures. They also suggest that humans have the capacity to influence the electrochemical dynamics of their brains, by voluntarily changing the nature of the mind processes unfolding in the psychological space.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                AIA
                10.1108/AIA
                Advances in Autism
                AIA
                Emerald Publishing
                2056-3868
                25 October 2019
                06 January 2020
                : 6
                : 1
                : 48-62
                Affiliations
                Psychology Department, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore
                Author notes
                Jan Mei Lim can be contacted at: gracejanmei@gmail.com
                Article
                636198 AIA-12-2018-0050.pdf AIA-12-2018-0050
                10.1108/AIA-12-2018-0050
                © Emerald Publishing Limited
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 142, Pages: 15, Words: 8322
                Product
                Categories
                e-viewpoint, Viewpoint
                cat-HSC, Health & social care
                cat-LID, Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata
                yes
                yes
                JOURNAL
                included

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