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      An histidine covalent receptor/butenolide complex mediates strigolactone perception

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          Strigolactone plant hormones control plant architecture and are key players in both symbiotic and parasitic interactions. They contain an ABC tricyclic lactone connected to a butenolide group, the D-ring. The DWARF14 (D14) strigolactone receptor belongs to the superfamily of α/β-hydrolases and is known to hydrolyze the bond between the ABC lactone and the D-ring. Here we characterize the binding and catalytic functions of RAMOSUS3 (RMS3), the pea ( Pisum sativum) ortholog of rice ( Oryza sativa) D14 strigolactone receptor. Using novel profluorescent probes with strigolactone-like bioactivity, we show that RMS3 acts as a single-turnover enzyme that explains its apparent low enzymatic rate. We further demonstrate the formation of a covalent RMS3/D-ring complex, essential for bioactivity, in which the D-ring is attached to Histidine 247 of the catalytic triad. These results reveal an undescribed mechanism of plant hormone reception where the receptor performs an irreversible enzymatic reaction to generate its own ligand.

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          Most cited references 52

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          Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4.

           U K Laemmli (1970)
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            MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods.

            Comparative analysis of molecular sequence data is essential for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and species. Here, we announce the release of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 5 (MEGA5), which is a user-friendly software for mining online databases, building sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees, and using methods of evolutionary bioinformatics in basic biology, biomedicine, and evolution. The newest addition in MEGA5 is a collection of maximum likelihood (ML) analyses for inferring evolutionary trees, selecting best-fit substitution models (nucleotide or amino acid), inferring ancestral states and sequences (along with probabilities), and estimating evolutionary rates site-by-site. In computer simulation analyses, ML tree inference algorithms in MEGA5 compared favorably with other software packages in terms of computational efficiency and the accuracy of the estimates of phylogenetic trees, substitution parameters, and rate variation among sites. The MEGA user interface has now been enhanced to be activity driven to make it easier for the use of both beginners and experienced scientists. This version of MEGA is intended for the Windows platform, and it has been configured for effective use on Mac OS X and Linux desktops. It is available free of charge from
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              A short history of SHELX.

              An account is given of the development of the SHELX system of computer programs from SHELX-76 to the present day. In addition to identifying useful innovations that have come into general use through their implementation in SHELX, a critical analysis is presented of the less-successful features, missed opportunities and desirable improvements for future releases of the software. An attempt is made to understand how a program originally designed for photographic intensity data, punched cards and computers over 10000 times slower than an average modern personal computer has managed to survive for so long. SHELXL is the most widely used program for small-molecule refinement and SHELXS and SHELXD are often employed for structure solution despite the availability of objectively superior programs. SHELXL also finds a niche for the refinement of macromolecules against high-resolution or twinned data; SHELXPRO acts as an interface for macromolecular applications. SHELXC, SHELXD and SHELXE are proving useful for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, especially because they are fast and robust and so are often employed in pipelines for high-throughput phasing. This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SHELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.

                Author and article information

                [1 ]Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRA, AgroParisTech, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, RD10, 78026 Versailles Cedex, France
                [2 ]Howard Hughes Medical Institute
                [3 ]Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
                [4 ]Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, CNRS UPR2301, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 1 av. de la Terrasse, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
                [5 ]Institut de Biologie Intégrative de la Cellule, CNRS, CEA, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 1 av. de la Terrasse, F-91190 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
                [6 ]Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Nat Chem Biol
                Nat. Chem. Biol.
                Nature chemical biology
                29 May 2016
                01 August 2016
                October 2016
                01 April 2017
                : 12
                : 10
                : 787-794

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