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Preliminary results from Hlanganani (Coming Together): A structured support group for HIV-infected adolescents piloted in Cape Town, South Africa

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      Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital

       Robert Putnam (1995)
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        Young people's sexual health in South Africa: HIV prevalence and sexual behaviors from a nationally representative household survey.

        To determine the prevalence of HIV infection, HIV risk factors, and exposure to national HIV prevention programs, and to identify factors associated with HIV infection among South African youth, aged 15-24 years. A cross-sectional, nationally representative, household survey. From March to August 2003 we conducted a national survey of HIV prevalence and sexual behavior among 11 904 15-24 year olds. Multivariable models for HIV infection were restricted to sexually experienced youth. Young women were significantly more likely to be infected with HIV in comparison with young men (15.5 versus 4.8%). Among men, a history of genital ulcers in the past 12 months was associated with HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-3.49) whereas among women a history of unusual vaginal discharge in the past 12 months was associated with HIV infection (AOR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.26-2.44). Young women with older partners were also at increased risk of HIV infection. Among both men and women, increasing partner numbers and inconsistent condom use were significantly associated with HIV infection. Males and females who reported participation in at least one loveLife program were less likely to be infected with HIV (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.89; AOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43-0.85, respectively). This survey confirms the high HIV prevalence among young people in South Africa and, in particular, young women's disproportionate risk. Programs for youth must continue to promote partner reduction, consistent condom use and prompt treatment for sexually transmitted infections while also addressing contextual factors that make it difficult for them to implement behavior change.
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          Antiretroviral therapy adherence, virologic and immunologic outcomes in adolescents compared with adults in southern Africa.

          To determine adherence to and effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adolescents vs. adults in southern Africa. Observational cohort study. Aid for AIDS, a private sector disease management program in southern Africa. Adolescents (age 11-19 years; n = 154) and adults (n = 7622) initiating ART between 1999 and 2006 and having a viral load measurement within 1 year after ART initiation. Primary: virologic suppression (HIV viral load < or = 400 copies/mL), viral rebound, and CD4 T-cell count at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after ART initiation. Secondary: adherence assessed by pharmacy refills at 6, 12, and 24 months. Multivariate analyses: loglinear regression and Cox proportional hazards. A significantly smaller proportion of adolescents achieved 100% adherence at each time point (adolescents: 20.7% at 6 months, 14.3% at 12 months, and 6.6% at 24 months; adults: 40.5%, 27.9%, and 20.6% at each time point, respectively; P < 0.01). Patients achieving 100% 12-month adherence were significantly more likely to exhibit virologic suppression at 12 months, regardless of age. However, adolescents achieving virologic suppression had significantly shorter time to viral rebound (adjusted hazard ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.31 to 3.13; P < 0.003). Adolescents were less likely to experience long-term immunologic recovery despite initial CD4 T-cell counts comparable to adults. Compared with adults, adolescents in southern Africa are less adherent to ART and have lower rates of virologic suppression and immunologic recovery and a higher rate of virologic rebound after initial suppression. Studies must determine specific barriers to adherence in this population and develop appropriate interventions.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Children and Youth Services Review
            Children and Youth Services Review
            Elsevier BV
            01907409
            October 2014
            October 2014
            : 45
            :
            : 114-121
            10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.027
            © 2014

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