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      Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria

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          Graphical abstract

          Highlights

          • Endophytes are a source of a plethora of biologically active substances.
          • Endophyte-associated metabolites may be needed for the interaction with the plant.
          • Some metabolites are produced jointly by plant and endophytes.
          • Endophytes may stimulate or alter metabolite production by the plant.
          • Metabolite functions include signalling and communication, nutrient acquisition and defense.

          Abstract

          The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest.

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          Most cited references 72

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          Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria.

          Disease-suppressive soils are exceptional ecosystems in which crop plants suffer less from specific soil-borne pathogens than expected owing to the activities of other soil microorganisms. For most disease-suppressive soils, the microbes and mechanisms involved in pathogen control are unknown. By coupling PhyloChip-based metagenomics of the rhizosphere microbiome with culture-dependent functional analyses, we identified key bacterial taxa and genes involved in suppression of a fungal root pathogen. More than 33,000 bacterial and archaeal species were detected, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria consistently associated with disease suppression. Members of the γ-Proteobacteria were shown to have disease-suppressive activity governed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Our data indicate that upon attack by a fungal root pathogen, plants can exploit microbial consortia from soil for protection against infections.
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            Hormone crosstalk in plant disease and defense: more than just jasmonate-salicylate antagonism.

            Until recently, most studies on the role of hormones in plant-pathogen interactions focused on salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). It is now clear that pathogen-induced modulation of signaling via other hormones contributes to virulence. A picture is emerging of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance, with outcomes dependent on pathogen lifestyles and the genetic constitution of the host. Recent progress has revealed intriguing similarities between hormone signaling mechanisms, with gene induction responses often achieved by derepression. Here, we report on recent advances, updating current knowledge on classical defense hormones SA, JA, and ET, and the roles of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (CKs), and brassinosteroids in molding plant-pathogen interactions. We highlight an emerging theme that positive and negative regulators of these disparate hormone signaling pathways are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
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              Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action, and future prospects.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Curr Opin Biotechnol
                Curr. Opin. Biotechnol
                Current Opinion in Biotechnology
                Current Biology
                0958-1669
                1879-0429
                1 June 2014
                June 2014
                : 27
                : 100
                : 30-37
                Affiliations
                AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Bioresources Unit, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln, Austria
                Article
                S0958-1669(13)00674-5
                10.1016/j.copbio.2013.09.012
                4045207
                24863894
                © 2014 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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                Biotechnology

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