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      An Association of Elevated Serum Gonadotropin Concentrations and Alzheimer Disease? : Elevated gonadotropin concentrations and Alzheimer disease

      , ,

      Journal of Neuroendocrinology

      Wiley

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          Most cited references 22

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          Arthritis and anti-inflammatory agents as possible protective factors for Alzheimer's disease: a review of 17 epidemiologic studies.

          Alzheimer's disease (AD) lesions are characterized by the presence of numerous inflammatory proteins. This has led to the hypothesis that brain inflammation is a cause of neuronal injury in AD and that anti-inflammatory drugs may act as protective agents. Seventeen epidemiologic studies from nine different countries have now been published in which arthritis, a major indication for the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, or anti-inflammatory drugs themselves have been considered as risk factors for AD. Both factors appear to be associated with a reduced prevalence of AD. The small size of most studies has limited their individual statistical significance, but similarities in design have made it possible to evaluate combined results. We have used established methods of statistical meta-analysis to estimate the overall chance of individuals exposed to arthritis or anti-inflammatory drugs developing AD as compared with the general population. Seven case-control studies with arthritis as the risk factor yielded an overall odds ratio of 0.556 (p < 0.0001), while four case-control studies with steroids yielded odds ratios of 0.656 (p = 0.049) and three case-control studies with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) yielded an odds ratio of 0.496 (p = 0.0002). When NSAIDs and steroids were combined into a single category of anti-inflammatory drugs, the odds ratio was 0.556 (p < 0.0001). Population-based studies were less similar in design than case-control studies, complicating the process of applying statistical meta-analytical techniques. Nevertheless, population-based studies with rheumatoid arthritis and NSAID use as risk factors strongly supported the results of case-control studies. These data suggest anti-inflammatory drugs may have a protective effect against AD. Controlled clinical trials will be necessary to test this possibility.
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            Estrogen deficiency and risk of Alzheimer's disease in women.

            The authors explored the possibility that estrogen loss associated with menopause may contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease by using a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort study. The Leisure World Cohort includes 8,877 female residents of Leisure World Laguna Hills, a retirement community in southern California, who were first mailed a health survey in 1981. From the 2,529 female cohort members who died between 1981 and 1992, the authors identified 138 with Alzheimer's disease or other dementia diagnoses likely to represent Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia, dementia, or senility) mentioned on the death certificate. Four controls were individually matched by birth date (+/- 1 year) and death date (+1 year) to each case. The risk of Alzheimer's disease and related dementia was less in estrogen users relative to nonusers (odds ratio = 0.69, 95 percent confidence interval 0.46-1.03). The risk decreased significantly with increasing estrogen dose and with increasing duration of estrogen use. Risk was also associated with variables related to endogenous estrogen levels; it increased with increasing age at menarche and (although not statistically significant) decreased with increasing weight. This study suggests that the increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease in older women may be due to estrogen deficiency and that estrogen replacement therapy may be useful for preventing or delaying the onset of this dementia.
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              The US economic and social costs of Alzheimer's disease revisited.

               R Ernst,  J Hay (1994)
              OBJECTIVEs. An earlier paper estimated the per-case and national incidence costs of Alzheimer's disease for 1983. This paper updates the estimates of costs per case to 1991 and presents new national prevalence estimates of the economic and social costs of the disease. All data for the cost estimates were taken from published sources or provided by other researchers. At midrange values of the estimated cost and epidemiological parameters, the discounted (at 4%) direct and total costs of Alzheimer's disease were $47,581 and $173,932 per case, respectively. The estimated 1991 national direct and total prevalence costs were $20.6 billion and $67.3 billion, respectively. Assuming conservatively that the prevalence of the disease remains constant, the estimated discounted present values of the direct and total costs of all current and future generations of Alzheimer's patients are $536 billion and $1.75 trillion, respectively. The $536 billion and $1.75 trillion figures are minimum estimates of the long-term dollar losses to the US economy in 1991 caused by Alzheimer's disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neuroendocrinology
                Journal of Neuroendocrinology
                Wiley
                09538194
                13652826
                April 2000
                December 24 2001
                : 12
                : 4
                : 351-354
                Article
                10.1046/j.1365-2826.2000.00461.x
                © 2001

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