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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity in Offspring: A Systematic Review

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      Abstract

      We systematically reviewed research examining the association between gestational diabetes (GDM) and childhood overweight and obesity. We identified studies from three sources: (1) a PubMed search of articles published between January 1990–January 2011, (2) reference lists of publications from the PubMed search, and (3) reference lists of review articles. We included studies that examined GDM separately from pregestational diabetes and childhood overweight or obesity defined as BMI > 85th or 95th percentile. A total of 12 studies were included in the systematic review. Crude odds ratios for the relationship between GDM and childhood overweight or obesity ranged from 0.7 to 6.3; in 8 studies, the associations were not statistically significant. In only 3 studies were results adjusted for any confounders; in the 2 that adjusted for prepregnancy obesity, the GDM and childhood overweight or obesity associations were attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment. This paper demonstrates inconsistent evidence of an association between GDM and offspring overweight and obesity due to the methodological limitations of existing studies. Recommendations for future research are presented, which address methodological challenges.

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      Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group.

       T Sipe,  D Rennie,  D Stroup (2000)
      Because of the pressure for timely, informed decisions in public health and clinical practice and the explosion of information in the scientific literature, research results must be synthesized. Meta-analyses are increasingly used to address this problem, and they often evaluate observational studies. A workshop was held in Atlanta, Ga, in April 1997, to examine the reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies and to make recommendations to aid authors, reviewers, editors, and readers. Twenty-seven participants were selected by a steering committee, based on expertise in clinical practice, trials, statistics, epidemiology, social sciences, and biomedical editing. Deliberations of the workshop were open to other interested scientists. Funding for this activity was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the conduct and reporting of meta-analyses in observational studies using MEDLINE, Educational Research Information Center (ERIC), PsycLIT, and the Current Index to Statistics. We also examined reference lists of the 32 studies retrieved and contacted experts in the field. Participants were assigned to small-group discussions on the subjects of bias, searching and abstracting, heterogeneity, study categorization, and statistical methods. From the material presented at the workshop, the authors developed a checklist summarizing recommendations for reporting meta-analyses of observational studies. The checklist and supporting evidence were circulated to all conference attendees and additional experts. All suggestions for revisions were addressed. The proposed checklist contains specifications for reporting of meta-analyses of observational studies in epidemiology, including background, search strategy, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. Use of the checklist should improve the usefulness of meta-analyses for authors, reviewers, editors, readers, and decision makers. An evaluation plan is suggested and research areas are explored.
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        Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in EpidemiologyA Proposal for Reporting

         Donna Stroup (2000)
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          Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001.

          Obesity and diabetes are increasing in the United States. To estimate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among US adults in 2001. Random-digit telephone survey of 195 005 adults aged 18 years or older residing in all states participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2001. Body mass index, based on self-reported weight and height and self-reported diabetes. In 2001 the prevalence of obesity (BMI > or =30) was 20.9% vs 19.8% in 2000, an increase of 5.6%. The prevalence of diabetes increased to 7.9% vs 7.3% in 2000, an increase of 8.2%. The prevalence of BMI of 40 or higher in 2001 was 2.3%. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma, arthritis, and poor health status. Compared with adults with normal weight, adults with a BMI of 40 or higher had an odds ratio (OR) of 7.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.39-8.50) for diagnosed diabetes, 6.38 (95% CI, 5.67-7.17) for high blood pressure, 1.88 (95% CI,1.67-2.13) for high cholesterol levels, 2.72 (95% CI, 2.38-3.12) for asthma, 4.41 (95% CI, 3.91-4.97) for arthritis, and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.68-4.76) for fair or poor health. Increases in obesity and diabetes among US adults continue in both sexes, all ages, all races, all educational levels, and all smoking levels. Obesity is strongly associated with several major health risk factors.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Division of Reproductive Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
            Author notes
            *Shin Y. Kim: skim1@ 123456cdc.gov

            Academic Editor: Barbara Alexander

            Journal
            Exp Diabetes Res
            EDR
            Experimental Diabetes Research
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            1687-5214
            1687-5303
            2011
            22 September 2011
            : 2011
            3179897
            21960991
            10.1155/2011/541308
            Copyright © 2011 Shin Y. Kim et al.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Review Article

            Endocrinology & Diabetes

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