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      Glomus tumour: an institutional experience of 31 cases

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          Abstract

          Background

          Glomus tumour is an uncommon soft tissue tumour which commonly occurs in the distal extremities, particularly the subungual region of the finger. Due to its rarity, there is a paucity of literature concerning glomus tumour. Therefore, this paper aims to report a case series based on our institution’s experience.

          Methods

          A retrospective cross sectional study was performed in a single tertiary institution in Singapore. All patients diagnosed with glomus tumour confirmed on histology from January 2019 to October 2022 were included in the study. Patient demographics and clinical information (presenting signs and symptoms, tumour parameters and presence of recurrence) were retrieved from existing medical records.

          Results

          A total of 31 cases of glomus tumour were diagnosed from January 2019 to October 2022, and the relevant demographics and clinical presentation were reported. Majority of glomus tumours occurred in the finger (61.3%). Pain was present in almost all the cases (96.8%), while a lump was visible in less than half (48.4%). An average of 44.0 months elapsed before patients were properly diagnosed and treated. There were no cases of recurrence despite involved margins in three cases.

          Conclusion

          Glomus tumour can be easily missed if clinicians do not have an index of suspicion for it, resulting in delayed treatment. Once diagnosed, glomus tumour can be treated with complete excision with good outcomes.

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          Most cited references17

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          Atypical and malignant glomus tumors: analysis of 52 cases, with a proposal for the reclassification of glomus tumors.

          Occasional glomus tumors display unusual features, such as large size, deep location, infiltrative growth, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism, and necrosis. Although a small number of purportedly malignant glomus tumors have been described, histologic criteria for malignancy in glomus tumors have never been elaborated. The authors studied 52 unusual glomus tumors (retrieved from their consultation files) previously diagnosed as "atypical" or "malignant" by virtue of nuclear atypia, infiltrative growth, or mitotic activity. They evaluated size, depth, growth pattern, cellularity, nuclear grade, number of mitotic figures per 50 high-power fields (HPF), atypical mitotic figures, vascular space involvement, and necrosis to define criteria for malignancy in glomus tumors. Estimated relative risk was calculated and the Fisher exact test was used for statistical analysis. The 27 female patients and the 25 male patients ranged in age from 8 to 83 years (median age, 43 years). The tumors measured from 0.2 to 12 cm (median size, 2 cm) and occurred predominantly in the extremities, in both the superficial (n = 35) and deep (n = 17) soft tissues. Atypical features were usually observed centrally with a rim of benign-appearing glomus tumor. Follow-up information (n = 35; range, 5 months-23 years; mean 5.5 years) showed seven recurrences, eight metastases, and seven deaths from disease. Five-year cumulative metastatic risk increased significantly for tumors with a deep location (p = 0.005), with a size of more than 2 cm (p = 0.004), and with atypical mitotic figures (p = 0.004). Mitotic activity of more than 5 mitoses/50 HPF, high cellularity, the presence of necrosis, and moderate to high nuclear grade approached but did not reach significance. High nuclear grade alone, infiltrative growth, and vascular space involvement were not associated with metastasis. The authors propose the following classification scheme and criteria. Malignant glomus tumor: Tumors with a deep location and a size of more than 2 cm, or atypical mitotic figures, or moderate to high nuclear grade and > or =5 mitotic figures/50 HPF. Symplastic glomus tumor: Tumors with high nuclear grade in the absence of any other malignant feature. Glomus tumor of uncertain malignant potential: Tumors that lack criteria for malignant glomus tumor or symplastic glomus tumor but have high mitotic activity and superficial location only, or large size only, or deep location only. Glomangiomatosis: Tumors with histologic features of diffuse angiomatosis and excess glomus cells. Using this classification scheme, metastasis was observed in 38% of tumors fulfilling the criteria for malignancy. In contrast, metastatic disease was not seen in any specimen classified as symplastic glomus tumor, glomus tumor of uncertain malignant potential, or glomangiomatosis.
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            Extradigital glomus tumors: a 20-year experience.

            To review a large series of extradigital glomus tumors in order to gain a better understanding of their presentation and provide guidelines to aid in their diagnosis and treatment. We performed a retrospective review of all extradigital glomus tumors seen at our institution during a 20-year period (1985-2005) to document the incidence of the classic triad of symptoms, the duration of symptoms, the contribution of imaging to making a definitive diagnosis, and the effectiveness of treatment. Fifty-six different patients with extradigital glomus tumors presented as follows: glomus tumors in the hand (3), wrist (4), forearm (11), elbow (4), arm (4), shoulder (2), buttock (1), thigh (5), knee (10), leg (3), ankle (2), foot (2), back (1), nose (1), cheek (1), ear lobe (1), and trachea (1). Forty-eight patients presented with pain and localized tenderness, but only 1 patient presented with cold Intolerance. The average duration of symptoms was greater than 7 years, with most patients being evaluated previously and having their conditions misdiagnosed. Magnetic resonance imaging proved to be the most useful modality for localization of these lesions. Surgical resection was the definitive treatment and generally provided immediate and sustained pain relief. Extradigital glomus tumors are not a rare subgroup of glomus tumors. Treatment outcomes are excellent, but misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis are common. Improved guidelines regarding symptoms and diagnosis of these neoplasms may reduce the morbidity, ensuing chronic pain, and psychiatric consequences of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis.
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              Clinical and histopathological diagnosis of glomus tumor: an institutional experience of 138 cases.

              Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon subcentimeteric benign perivascular neoplasms usually located on the fingers. With their blue-red color and common subungual location, they are commonly confused for vascular or melanocytic lesions. To date there is no comprehensive review of an institutional experience with glomus tumors. A 14-year retrospective review of all cases within University of California, Los Angeles, with either a clinical or pathological diagnosis of glomus tumor was performed. Data obtained included demographic information, tumor description, pathological diagnoses, immunohistochemical studies, radiographic and treatment information, and clinical course. Rates of concordance between clinical and pathological diagnoses and an evaluation of overlap with other entities were assessed. Clinical diagnosis of glomus tumor showed concordance with a histopathological diagnosis (45.4% of cases). The most common alternate clinical diagnoses included lipoma, cyst, or angioma. A pathological diagnosis of glomus tumor was most common in the fourth to seventh decades of life. The most common presentation was a subcentimeter lesion on the digit. Deep-seated tumors had a strikingly increased risk for malignancy (33%). Radiological studies were not relied on frequently (18.2% of cases). Immunohistochemical analysis showed diffuse αSMA and MSA expression in nearly all cases (99% and 95%, respectively), with focal to diffuse CD34 immunostaining in 32% of cases. Our study illustrates trends in the clinical versus pathologic diagnoses of glomus tumor, common competing diagnoses, a difference in demographics than is commonly reported (older age groups most commonly affected), and important differences in the use adjunctive diagnostic tools including radiology and immunohistochemistry. © The Author(s) 2015.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                lee.wen.qiang@gmail.com
                Journal
                J Orthop Surg Res
                J Orthop Surg Res
                Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1749-799X
                30 September 2023
                30 September 2023
                2023
                : 18
                : 741
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopaedics, Singapore General Hospital, ( https://ror.org/036j6sg82) Outram Road, Singapore, 169608 Singapore
                [2 ]Department of Anatomical Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, ( https://ror.org/036j6sg82) Outram Road, Singapore, 169608 Singapore
                Article
                4234
                10.1186/s13018-023-04234-1
                10541690
                37777807
                e5461a8d-8305-4e19-b7bf-3a1de72b8a9c
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 23 July 2023
                : 25 September 2023
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Surgery
                case series,clinical features,glomus tumour,histological features,uncommon soft tissue tumour

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