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      Which GOLD B patients progress to GOLD D with the new classification?

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          Abstract

          Background

          The 2017 GOLD guidelines revised assessment of COPD by eliminating the FEV 1 criterion.

          Aim

          First, we explored the redistribution of 2011 GOLD groups by reference to the 2017 GOLD criteria. Second, we investigated the characteristics of GOLD B patients and the natural course of GOLD B patients according to the 2017 GOLD guidelines.

          Methods

          In total, 2,010 COPD patients in the Korean COPD Subgroup Study cohort were analyzed at baseline and 1 year after enrollment.

          Results

          The 2011 GOLD C patients were redistributed to the 2017 A (64.5%) and C (35.4%) groups. The 2011 GOLD D patients were redistributed to the 2017 B (61.6%) and D (38.6%) groups. The GOLD B patients constituted 62.7% of all patients according to the 2017 classification. Such patients exhibited higher % predicted FEV 1 values, longer six-minute walk distances, fewer symptoms, and lower inflammatory marker levels than GOLD D patients. Most GOLD B patients remained in that group (69.1%), but 13.8% progressed to group D at 1-year follow-up. The factors associated with progression from GOLD B to GOLD D were older age, higher modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) symptom scores, and a lower % predicted FEV 1 value.

          Conclusion

          Severe symptoms, poorer health status, and greater airflow limitation increased patients’ risk of exacerbation and progression from group B to group D when the 2017 GOLD criteria were applied.

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          Most cited references 8

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          The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction.

          A prospective epidemiological study of the early stages of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was performed on London working men. The findings showed that forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) falls gradually over a lifetime, but in most non-smokers and many smokers clinically significant airflow obstruction never develops. In susceptible people, however, smoking causes irreversible obstructive changes. If a susceptible smoker stops smoking he will not recover his lung function, but the average further rates of loss of FEV1 will revert to normal. Therefore, severe or fatal obstructive lung disease could be prevented by screening smokers' lung function in early middle age if those with reduced function could be induced to stop smoking. Infective processes and chronic mucus hypersecretion do not cause chronic airflow obstruction to progress more rapidly. There are thus two largely unrelated disease processes, chronic airflow obstruction and the hypersecretory disorder (including infective processes).
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            Clinical features and determinants of COPD exacerbation in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study.

             Mitsuru Ito,  ,  Masaru Suzuki (2014)
            Exacerbations are among the major factors that may affect the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim was to investigate the clinical characteristics and determinants of COPD exacerbations in our 5-year observational cohort study which had a very low exacerbation frequency. A total of 279 patients with COPD participated in the Hokkaido COPD cohort study, and 268 subjects who had clinical data for multiple visits were analysed. Exacerbation was defined in multiple ways: the patient's subjective complaint, symptom definition, requiring prescription change, requiring antibiotic treatment, or requiring hospital admission. Exacerbation frequency (events per person per year) was 0.78 ± 1.16, 0.24 ± 0.47, 0.20 ± 0.43, 0.13 ± 0.28 and 0.06 ± 0.19 for subjective complaint and symptom, prescription, antibiotic and hospital admission definitions, respectively. Exacerbation events did not significantly affect the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s. A high St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score, especially activity score, and a low body mass index were strongly associated with exacerbation-free survival, exacerbation frequency and development of recurrent exacerbations. Despite the low exacerbation frequency in our cohort, impaired health-related quality of life and weight loss were found to be independent risk factors for COPD exacerbations.
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              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              FEV1 decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with biomass exposure.

              Biomass exposure is an important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the time-course behavior of FEV1 in subjects exposed to biomass is unknown.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                12 October 2018
                : 13
                : 3233-3241
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan-si, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea
                [5 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [6 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Republic of Korea
                [7 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [8 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [9 ]Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea, bfspark2@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yong Bum Park, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, 150 Seongan-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul 05355, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 10 3343 8860, Fax +82 2 2224 2569, Email bfspark2@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                copd-13-3233
                10.2147/COPD.S177944
                6190819
                © 2018 Choi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                copd, gold b, progression

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