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      The Vulnerable Myocardium: Need for a Paradigm Shift for the Management of Coronary Artery Disease?

      * ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

      Coronary circulation, Coronary artery disease, Endothelium, Microcirculation

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          Coronary microcirculatory resistance is independent of epicardial stenosis.

          Recent studies show that coronary microcirculatory impairment is an independent predictor of poor outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, controversy exists over whether microcirculatory resistance, a measure of coronary microcirculatory status, is dependent on epicardial stenosis severity. Previous studies demonstrating that microcirculatory resistance is dependent on epicardial stenosis severity have not accounted for collateral flow in their measurement of microcirculatory resistance. We investigated whether the index of microcirculatory resistance is independent of epicardial stenosis by comparing the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) levels in patients before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI of the left anterior descending artery were recruited. Patients who developed periprocedural myocardial infarction were excluded. A pressure-temperature sensor wire was used to measure the apparent IMR (IMR(app)), which does not adjust for collateral flow, and the true IMR (IMR(true)), which incorporates wedge pressure measurement to account for collateral flow, before and after PCI. In 43 patients, there was no difference between pre- and post-PCI IMR(true) (mean difference=0.8±11.7, P=0.675). IMR(app) was higher pre-PCI compared with post-PCI (mean difference=10.0±14.5, P<0.001). IMR(app) was higher than IMR(true) (mean difference=9.3±14.2, P<0.001), and the difference between the IMR(app) and IMR(true) became greater with decreasing fractional flow reserve and increasing coronary wedge pressure. Pre-PCI fractional flow reserve correlated modestly with IMR(app) (r=-0.33, P=0.03), but not IMR(true) (r=0.26, P=0.10). Coronary microcirculatory resistance is independent of functional epicardial stenosis severity when collateral flow is taken into account.
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            Reduced microvascular density in non-ischemic myocardium of patients with recent non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

            Myocardial microvascular dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). We tested the hypothesis that patients with MI have lower microvasculature density in myocardium remote from the site of infarction than patients with similar extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) without MI and examined the relationship between myocardial capillary length density and plasma levels of angiogenesis-related biomarkers.
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              Changes in microvascular reactivity after cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with poorly controlled versus controlled diabetes.

              We investigated the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on peripheral arteriolar reactivity and associated signaling pathways in poorly controlled (UDM), controlled (CDM), and case-matched nondiabetic (ND) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Skeletal muscle arterioles were harvested before and after CPB from the UDM patients (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]=9.0 ± 0.3), the CDM patients (HbA1c=6.3 ± 0.15), and the ND patients (HbA1c=5.2 ± 0.1) undergoing CABG surgery (n=10/group). In vitro relaxation responses of precontracted arterioles to endothelium-dependent vasodilators adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and substance P and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were examined. The baseline responses to ADP, substance P, and SNP of arterioles from the UDM patients were decreased as compared with microvessels from the ND or CDM patients (P<0.05). The post-CPB relaxation responses to ADP and substance P were significantly decreased in all 3 groups compared with pre-CPB responses (P<0.05). However, these decreases were more pronounced in the UDM group (P<0.05). The post-CPB response to SNP was significantly decreased only in the UDM group, not in the other 2 groups compared with pre-CPB. The expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-α, PKC-β, protein oxidation, and nitrotyrosine in the skeletal muscle were significantly increased in the UDM group as compared with those of ND or CDM groups (P<0.05). Poorly controlled diabetes results in impaired arteriolar function before and after CPB. These alterations are associated with the increased expression/activation of PKC-α and PKC-β and enhanced oxidative and nitrosative stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                August 2014
                20 June 2014
                : 129
                : 1
                : 18-19
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                *Constantinos Pantos, Department of Pharmacology, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Ave., 11527 Goudi, Athens (Greece), E-Mail cpantos@med.uoa.gr
                Article
                362866 Cardiology 2014;129:18-19
                10.1159/000362866
                24968721
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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