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      P wave dispersion in patients with erectile dysfunction

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          P wave dispersion (PWD) has been reported to be a non-invasive electrocardiographic predictor for atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to evaluate PWD between men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and healthy controls in order to investigate whether PWD was prolonged in patients with ED and related to severity of the disease.

          Methods

          This study included a total of 72 men (42 patients with ED and 30 healthy controls). Demographic data and clinical features were recorded on admission. An electrocardiographic evaluation was obtained to measure PWD values for both patients and controls.

          Results

          Maximum P wave duration was 108.5 ± 4.7 and 108.3 ± 4.3 in ED group and control group, respectively ( p = 0.748). Minumum P wave duration was significantly higher in the control group than in the ED group. PWD was 48.1 ± 5.9 in the ED group. As a result, PWD was prolonged in patients with ED (48.1 ± 5.9 vs. 38.0 ± 3.9, p < 0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between IIEF score and PWD values ( p < 0.05, r = −0.662).

          Conclusions

          Patients with ED exhibited prolonged PWD values compared with normal controls. In addition, PWD was found to be associated with severity of the disease.

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          Most cited references37

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          A systematic review of the association between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

          Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered a vascular impairment that shares many risk factors with cardiovascular disease (CVD). A correlation between ED and CVD has been hypothesized, and ED has been proposed as an early marker of symptomatic CVD. To analyze the relationship between ED and CVD, evaluating the pathophysiologic links between these conditions, and to identify which patients would benefit from cardiologic assessment when presenting with ED. A systematic literature review searching Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases was performed. The search strategy included the terms erectile dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, risk factors, pathophysiology, atherosclerosis, low androgen levels, inflammation, screening, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors alone or in combination. We limited our search to studies published between January 2005 and May 2013. Several studies reported an association between ED and CVD. The link between these conditions might reside in the interaction between androgens, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors that determines endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis, resulting in disorders of penile and coronary circulation. Because penile artery size is smaller compared with coronary arteries, the same level of endothelial dysfunction causes a more significant reduction of blood flow in erectile tissues compared with that in coronary circulation. Thus ED could be an indicator of systemic endothelial dysfunction. From a clinical standpoint, because ED may precede CVD, it can be used as an early marker to identify men at higher risk of CVD events. ED patients at high risk of CVD should undergo detailed cardiologic assessment and receive intensive treatment of risk factors. ED and CVD should be regarded as two different manifestations of the same systemic disorder. ED usually precedes CVD onset, and it might be considered an early marker of symptomatic CVD. Copyright © 2013 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            The use of the simplified International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool to study the prevalence of erectile dysfunction.

            The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in a non-selected population using the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool. In a non-institutionalized population and during a free screening program for prostate cancer (Prostate Cancer Awareness Week of Santa Casa Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil), from 26 to 30 July 1998, all men who were attending were invited to complete a sexual activity questionnaire (the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function-IIEF-5) as a diagnostic tool for ED. The possible scores for the IIEF-5 range from 5 to 25, and ED was classified into five categories based on the scores: severe (5-7), moderate (8-11), mild to moderate (12-16), mild (17-21), and no ED (22-25). Of the 1071 men who participated in the program, 965 (90.1%) were included in this study. Of the responding men 850 were Caucasian (88%) and 115 were black (12%). The mean age of the men was 60.7 y, ranging from 40 to 90 y old. In this sample the prevalence of all degrees of ED was estimated as 53.9%. In this group of men, the degree of ED was mild in 21.5%, mild to moderate in 14.1%, moderate in 6.3%, and severe in 11.9%. According to age the rates of ED were: 40-49 (36.4%); 50-59 (42.5%); 60-69 (58.1%); 70-79 (79.4%), and over 80 y (100%) showed ED (P<0.05). The Pearson coefficients between the variables age and IIEF-5 showed a statistically significant inverse (negative) relation (r=-0.3449; P<0.05). ED is highly prevalent in men over 40 and this condition showed a clear relationship to aging, as demonstrated in other studies published. The simplified IIEF-5, as a diagnostic tool, showed to be an easy method, which can be used to evaluate this condition in studies with a great number of men.
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              Impaired heart rate response to graded exercise. Prognostic implications of chronotropic incompetence in the Framingham Heart Study.

              Previous reports have suggested that an attenuated exercise heart rate response may be associated with coronary heart disease risk and with mortality. These observations may parallel the association between reduced heart rate variability during normal activities and adverse outcome. This investigation was designed to look at the prognostic implications of exercise heart rate response in a population-based sample. In this prospective cohort investigation, 1575 male participants (mean age, 43 years) in the Framingham Offspring Study who were free of coronary heart disease, who were not taking beta-blockers, and who underwent submaximal treadmill exercise testing (Bruce protocol) were studied. Heart rate response was assessed in three ways: (1) failure to achieve 85% of the age-predicted maximum heart rate, which has been the traditional definition of chronotropic incompetence; (2) the actual increase in heart rate from rest to peak exercise; and (3) the ratio of heart rate to metabolic reserve used by stage 2 of exercise ("chronotropic response index"). Proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate the associations of heart rate responses with all-cause mortality and with coronary heart disease incidence during 7.7 years of follow-up. Failure to achieve target heart rate occurred in 327 (21%) subjects. During follow-up there were 55 deaths (14 caused by coronary heart disease) and 95 cases of incident coronary heart disease. Failure to achieve target heart rate, a smaller increase in heart rate with exercise, and the chronotropic response index were predictive of total mortality and incident coronary heart disease (P <.01). Failure to achieve target heart rate remained predictive of incident coronary heart disease even after adjusting for age, ST-segment response, physical activity, and traditional coronary disease risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 2.74; P=.02). After adjusting for the same factors, the increase in exercise heart rate remained inversely predictive of total mortality (P=.04) and coronary heart disease incidence (P=.0003). The chronotropic response index also was predictive of total mortality (P=.05) and incident coronary heart disease (P=.001) after adjusting for age and other risk factors. An attenuated heart rate response to exercise, a manifestation of chronotropic incompetence, is predictive of increased mortality and coronary heart disease incidence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Interv Med Appl Sci
                Interv Med Appl Sci
                imas
                IMAS
                Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2061-1617
                2061-5094
                22 May 2019
                June 2019
                : 11
                : 2
                : 101-105
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University , Alanya, Turkey
                [2 ]Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University , Alanya, Turkey
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Can Ramazan Öncel; Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Konya Çimento Street No: 80, Alanya 07450, Antalya, Turkey; Phone: +90 506 371 51 99; Fax: +90 242 510 61 39; E-mail: r_oncel@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                10.1556/1646.11.2019.10
                7044541
                e561f357-f7c8-42d9-83fd-e5ae0ef2ba7f
                © 2019 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 5
                Product
                Funding
                Funding sources: The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
                Categories
                Original Paper

                erectile dysfunction,p wave dispersion,autonomic nervous system,endothelial dysfunction,electrocardiography

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