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      Strategies for mitigation of climate change: a review

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          Abstract

          Climate change is defined as the shift in climate patterns mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions from natural systems and human activities. So far, anthropogenic activities have caused about 1.0 °C of global warming above the pre-industrial level and this is likely to reach 1.5 °C between 2030 and 2052 if the current emission rates persist. In 2018, the world encountered 315 cases of natural disasters which are mainly related to the climate. Approximately 68.5 million people were affected, and economic losses amounted to $131.7 billion, of which storms, floods, wildfires and droughts accounted for approximately 93%. Economic losses attributed to wildfires in 2018 alone are almost equal to the collective losses from wildfires incurred over the past decade, which is quite alarming. Furthermore, food, water, health, ecosystem, human habitat and infrastructure have been identified as the most vulnerable sectors under climate attack. In 2015, the Paris agreement was introduced with the main objective of limiting global temperature increase to 2 °C by 2100 and pursuing efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C. This article reviews the main strategies for climate change abatement, namely conventional mitigation, negative emissions and radiative forcing geoengineering. Conventional mitigation technologies focus on reducing fossil-based CO 2 emissions. Negative emissions technologies are aiming to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon to reduce carbon dioxide levels. Finally, geoengineering techniques of radiative forcing alter the earth’s radiative energy budget to stabilize or reduce global temperatures. It is evident that conventional mitigation efforts alone are not sufficient to meet the targets stipulated by the Paris agreement; therefore, the utilization of alternative routes appears inevitable. While various technologies presented may still be at an early stage of development, biogenic-based sequestration techniques are to a certain extent mature and can be deployed immediately.

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          The technological and economic prospects for CO2 utilization and removal

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            Negative emissions—Part 2: Costs, potentials and side effects

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              Biochar application to low fertility soils: A review of current status, and future prospects

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Environmental Chemistry Letters
                Environ Chem Lett
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1610-3653
                1610-3661
                November 2020
                July 30 2020
                November 2020
                : 18
                : 6
                : 2069-2094
                Article
                10.1007/s10311-020-01059-w
                e56d440e-3729-4793-bfca-6185b1d145a9
                © 2020

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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