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      ECI-4 screening of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and co-morbidity in Mexican preschool children: preliminary results Translated title: Tamizaje del trastorno por déficit de atención-hiperactividad y su co-morbilidad en preescolares mexicanos por el ECI-4: resultados preliminares


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          OBJECTIVE: To examine prospectively usefulness of Early Childhood Inventory-4 (ECI-4) in identifying attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: A sample of children <6 years of age were evaluated in school settings with ECI-4 and results compared with those of Conners Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) 6 months later. Sample consisted of 34 healthy children (20 boys, 14 girls) prospectively followed-up. RESULTS: Frequency of children fulfill DSM-IV AD-HD criteria in ECI-4 parent scale was 17%, and in teacher scale was 32%. Frequency of children fulfill DSM-IV AD-HD criteria in parent CRS-R was 20%, and for teacher questionnaire was 23%. Correlations were significant among teacher ECI-4 and both teacher and parent CRS-R scales. Sensitivity and specificity of teacher and parent ECI-4 scales were not good. Frequency of ODD identified in parent ECI-4 scale was 5%, and for teacher 17%. Frequency of ODD in CRS-R for parents and teachers questionnaires was 17%. CD was not identified by parents in ECI-4 scale, but in teacher scale frequency was 14%. CONCLUSION: These facts support partially the use of ECI-4 screening of ADHD in Spanish-speaking preschool children.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: Examinar prospectivamente la utilidad del Inventario Temprano de la Niñez-4 (Early Childhood Inventory-4, ECI-4) para identificar el trastorno por déficit de atención-hiperactividad (TDAH), el trastorno desafiante-oposicional (TDO) y el trastorno de conducta (TC). MÉTODO: Una muestra de niños <6 años fue evaluada con el ECI-4 en un ambiente escolar y los resultados comparados con los de las Escalas de Conners (Conners Rating Scales-Revised, CRS-R) 6 meses mas tarde. La muestra consistió de 34 niños (20 niños, 14 niñas) seguidos prospectivamente. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de niños que llenaron los criterios del DSM-IV para TDAH en la escala para padres del ECI-4 fue 17%, mientras que en la escala para maestros fue 32%. La frecuencia de niños que llenaron los criterios del DSM-IV para TDA-H en la escala para padres CRS-R fue 20%, en la escala para maestros fue 23%. Se hallaron correlaciones significativas entre la escala para maestros del ECI-4 y las escalas para maestros y para padres de CRS-R. La sensibilidad y la especificidad de las escalas para maestros y padres del ECI-4 no fueron alentadoras. La frecuencia del TDO identificada en la escala para padres del ECI-4 fue 5% y en la escala para maestros fue 17%. La frecuencia del TDO en la escala para padres y para maestros CRS-R fue 17%. El TC no fue identificado por los padres con la escala del ECI-4, pero en la escala para maestros, la frecuencia fue de 14%. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados obtenidos apoyan parcialmente el uso de las escalas de tamizaje del ECI-4 para encontrar TDAH, TDO y TC en preescolares mexicanos.

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          Most cited references25

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          Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

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            Clinical use of rating scales in diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

            C Conners (1999)
            Rating scales for the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD capture a lot of information at a relatively low cost and are of particular value in pediatric settings. They identify the expectations for children at a given age and gender for most behavioral problems encountered in practice. Used appropriately, these rating scales help to avoid some of the excesses decried by critics and the controversies. This article reviews problems in diagnoses, problems in treatment, methodology of rating scales, a description of new scales, a diagnostic utility of new scales.
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              Can a valid diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder be made in preschool children?

              Disruptive behavior problems are the most common reason preschool children come to mental health clinics. Yet consensus on the conceptualization and measurement of such problems in young children is lacking. DSM-IV is the most widely used nosologic system for children, but the majority of the validation sample consisted of school-age children and adolescents. It is debatable whether behavioral problems in young children should be considered within a diagnostic framework at all, since normative behavioral disruption occurs during the preschool period. Developing valid methods for assessing child behavior problems across development is critical for etiologic and prevention research. The authors compare different approaches to conceptualizing disruptive behavior in young children, review evidence for the construct validity of DSM-based oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in preschool children, and outline an agenda for future research. Typical and atypical behavior problems can be differentiated in preschool children, and the DSM framework, with some modification to address the child's developmental level, appears to be a valid method for identifying preschool children with disruptive behavior that is impairing. Empirical investigation is needed to standardize modification of existing assessment tools so that they can be used with preschool children and to develop more clinically sensitive methods for using observational data in assessment and for establishing the child's level of development.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
                Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr.
                Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO (São Paulo )
                December 2006
                : 64
                : 4
                : 932-936
                [1 ] National Institute of Rehabilitation Mexico



                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-282X&lng=en

                Neurosciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                preschool children,hyperactive children,disruptive behavior,screening,preescolares,trastorno por déficit de atención-hiperactividad,trastorno desafiante oposicional,trastorno de conducta,tamizaje


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