40
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Sleep and Athletic Performance: The Effects of Sleep Loss on Exercise Performance, and Physiological and Cognitive Responses to Exercise

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 145

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

          The concept of 'sleeping on a problem' is familiar to most of us. But with myriad stages of sleep, forms of memory and processes of memory encoding and consolidation, sorting out how sleep contributes to memory has been anything but straightforward. Nevertheless, converging evidence, from the molecular to the phenomenological, leaves little doubt that offline memory reprocessing during sleep is an important component of how our memories are formed and ultimately shaped.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep.

            The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energy conservation and in nervous system recuperation. Theories of REM sleep have suggested a role for this state in periodic brain activation during sleep, in localized recuperative processes and in emotional regulation. Across mammals, the amount and nature of sleep are correlated with age, body size and ecological variables, such as whether the animals live in a terrestrial or an aquatic environment, their diet and the safety of their sleeping site. Sleep may be an efficient time for the completion of a number of functions, but variations in sleep expression indicate that these functions may differ across species.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Adverse effects of modest sleep restriction on sleepiness, performance, and inflammatory cytokines.

              Total sleep restriction in humans is associated with increased daytime sleepiness, decreased performance, and hormonal/metabolic disturbances. The effects of mild chronic sleep restriction that mimic real life are not known. To assess the effects of modest sleep restriction from 8 to 6 h/night for 1 wk, 25 young, healthy, normal sleepers (12 men and 13 women) were studied for 12 consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory. After 1 wk of sleep restriction, although subjects' nighttime sleep was deeper, subjects were significantly sleepier (multiple sleep latency test) and performed worse in four primary variables of psychomotor vigilance test (both P < 0.01). Furthermore, 24-h secretion of IL-6 was increased by 0.8 +/- 0.3 pg/ml (P < 0.05) in both sexes, whereas TNFalpha was increased only in men. Also, the peak cortisol secretion was lower after sleep restriction than at baseline, and this difference was stronger in men (55.18 +/- 24.83 nmol/liter; P < 0.05) than in women (35.87 +/- 24.83 nmol/liter; P < 0.16). We conclude that in young men and women, modest sleep loss is associated with significant sleepiness, impairment of psychomotor performance, and increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Given the potential association of these behavioral and physical alterations with health, well-being, and public safety, the idea that sleep or parts of it are optional should be regarded with caution.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sports Medicine
                Sports Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0112-1642
                1179-2035
                February 2015
                October 15 2014
                February 2015
                : 45
                : 2
                : 161-186
                Article
                10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0
                25315456
                © 2015

                Comments

                Comment on this article