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      Social and Solitary Exercise among the Unemployed and Out of the Labor Force in the United States: Estimates by Gender and Partnership Status


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          Abstract Introduction: The negative effects of unemployment are significant, and the potential for increased morbidity and mortality is a major public health challenge. Negative effects may be partially attributable to health behavior change and loss of social ties. Exercise has positive physical and mental health benefits and could help buffer such negative effects. This study examines whether time in social and solitary exercise varies by unemployment and out of the labor force (OOLF) status because exercise, especially social exercise, provides health benefits. Methods: Gender-stratified ordinary least squares models are estimated using data from the nationally representative 2003-2016 American Time Use Surveys to test how own and partner employment status are associated with total time in exercise, exercise alone, with children, with a partner, and with others. Results: Unemployed and OOLF men spend significantly more time in exercise alone (3-9 minutes, p<.05) and with others (about 13 minutes, p<.001) compared to employed men. Unemployed women spend significantly more time in exercise with others (6 minutes, p<.05), and OOLF women in all types of social exercise (1-9 minutes, p<.05), compared to employed women. Conclusions: Unemployed and OOLF individuals engage in more social exercise, which could be leveraged to help buffer loss of social ties and improve health. Exercise-related interventions may help reduce negative health consequences of unemployment. Keywords: physical activity, employment, American Time Use Survey

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          Spotlight on Public Health Research
          PUBH Research
          Spotlight on Research
          October 10 2019
          July 10 2019
          [1 ]University of La Verne, Department of Sociology and Anthropology
          © 2019

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