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      Role of Uremic Toxins for Kidney, Cardiovascular, and Bone Dysfunction

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          Abstract

          With decreasing kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mineral bone disorders frequently emerge in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For these patients, in addition to the traditional risk factors, non-traditional CKD-specific risk factors are also associated with such diseases and conditions. One of these non-traditional risk factors is the accumulation of uremic toxins (UTs). In addition, the accumulation of UTs further deteriorates kidney function. Recently, a huge number of UTs have been identified. Although many experimental and clinical studies have reported associations between UTs and the progression of CKD, CVD, and bone disease, these relationships are very complex and have not been fully elucidated. Among the UTs, indoxyl sulfate, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and p-cresylsulfate have been of particular focus, up until now. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological influences of these UTs on the kidney, cardiovascular system, and bone, and discuss the clinical data regarding the harmful effects of these UTs on diseases and conditions.

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          Most cited references 108

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          Serum indoxyl sulfate is associated with vascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients.

          As a major component of uremic syndrome, cardiovascular disease is largely responsible for the high mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have evidenced an association between serum levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS, a protein-bound uremic toxin) and vascular alterations. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum IS, vascular calcification, vascular stiffness, and mortality in a cohort of CKD patients. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; 60% male) at different stages of CKD (8% at stage 2, 26.5% at stage 3, 26.5% at stage 4, 7% at stage 5, and 32% at stage 5D) were enrolled. Baseline IS levels presented an inverse relationship with renal function and a direct relationship with aortic calcification and pulse wave velocity. During the follow-up period (605 +/- 217 d), 25 patients died, mostly because of cardiovascular events (n = 18). In crude survival analyses, the highest IS tertile was a powerful predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The predictive power of IS for death was maintained after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, albumin, hemoglobin, phosphate, and aortic calcification. The study presented here indicates that IS may have a significant role in the vascular disease and higher mortality observed in CKD patients.
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            Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis.

            Evidence to support an important role of oxidative modification in mediating the atherogenicity of LDL continues to grow. New hypotheses suggest mechanisms by which Ox-LDL or products of Ox-LDL can affect many components of the atherogenic process, including vasomotor properties and thrombosis, as well as lesion initiation and progression itself. These ideas suggest new approaches, that in combination with lowering of plasma cholesterol, could lead to the prevention of atherosclerosis and its complications.
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              Free p-cresylsulphate is a predictor of mortality in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease.

              Uraemic toxins are considered to be emerging mortality risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. p-Cresol (a prototype protein-bound uraemic retention solute) has been shown to exert toxic effects in vitro. Recently, it has been demonstrated that p-cresol is present in plasma as its sulphate conjugate, p-cresylsulphate. The present study evaluated the distribution of free and total p-cresylsulphate and sought to determine whether these parameters were associated with vascular calcification, arterial stiffness and mortality risk in a cohort of CKD patients. One hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; males: 60%) at different stages of CKD (8% at Stage 2, 26.5% at Stage 3, 26.5% at Stage 4, 7% at Stage 5 and 32% at Stage 5D) were enrolled in this study. Baseline total and free p-cresylsulphate presented an inverse relationship with renal function and were significantly associated with vascular calcification. During the study period (mean follow-up period: 779 +/- 185 days), 38 patients died [including 22 from cardiovascular (CV) causes]. In crude survival analyses, free (but not total) p-cresylsulphate was shown to be a predictor of overall and CV death. Higher free p-cresylsulphate levels (>0.051 mg/100 mL; median) were associated with mortality independently of well-known predictors of survival such as age, vascular calcification, anaemia and inflammation. Serum levels of free and total p-cresylsulphate (the main in vivo circulating metabolites of p-cresol) were elevated in later CKD stages. However, only free p-cresylsulphate seems to be a predictor of survival in CKD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                16 May 2018
                May 2018
                : 10
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Nephrology and Kidney Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan; fhideki@ 123456med.kobe-u.ac.jp (H.F.); sgoto@ 123456med.kobe-u.ac.jp (S.G.)
                [2 ]Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara 259-1193, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: fukagawa@ 123456tokai-u.jp ; Tel.: +81-463-93-1121
                Article
                toxins-10-00202
                10.3390/toxins10050202
                5983258
                29772660
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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