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      A review on various electrochemical techniques for heavy metal ions detection with different sensing platforms.

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          Abstract

          Heavy metal ions are non-biodegradable and contaminate most of the natural resources occurring in the environment including water. Some of the heavy metals including Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr) and Cadmium (Cd) are considered to be highly toxic and hazardous to human health even at trace levels. This leads to the requirement of fast, accurate and reliable techniques for the detection of heavy metal ions. This review presents various electrochemical detection techniques for heavy metal ions those are user friendly, low cost, provides on-site and real time monitoring as compared to other spectroscopic and optical techniques. The categorization of different electrochemical techniques is done on the basis of different types of detection signals generated due to presence of heavy metal ions in the solution matrix like current, potential, conductivity, electrochemical impedance, and electrochemiluminescence. Also, the recent trends in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions with various types of sensing platforms including metals, metal films, metal oxides, nanomaterials, carbon nano tubes, polymers, microspheres and biomaterials have been evoked.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Biosens Bioelectron
          Biosensors & bioelectronics
          Elsevier BV
          1873-4235
          0956-5663
          Aug 15 2017
          : 94
          Affiliations
          [1 ] CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030, India. Electronic address: csiobabankumar@gmail.com.
          [2 ] IISER, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Punjab 140306,India. Electronic address: tejinderdevgon@iisermohali.c.in.
          [3 ] NITTTR, National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research, Chandigarh 160019, India. Electronic address: ritula.thakur@gmail.com.
          [4 ] NITTTR, National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research, Chandigarh 160019, India. Electronic address: sakshidevgon@gmail.com.
          [5 ] CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation, Chandigarh 160030, India. Electronic address: inderbirsingh1@gmail.com.
          Article
          S0956-5663(17)30182-3
          10.1016/j.bios.2017.03.031
          28340464
          e5888f2e-74ee-4f89-b506-817ce2bbd8a9
          History

          Biomaterials,Electrochemical techniques,Heavy metal ions,Metallic interface,Nanomaterials

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