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Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides

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      Abstract

      Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica) active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability.

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      Most cited references 105

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      Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world.

      Botanical insecticides have long been touted as attractive alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for pest management because botanicals reputedly pose little threat to the environment or to human health. The body of scientific literature documenting bioactivity of plant derivatives to arthropod pests continues to expand, yet only a handful of botanicals are currently used in agriculture in the industrialized world, and there are few prospects for commercial development of new botanical products. Pyrethrum and neem are well established commercially, pesticides based on plant essential oils have recently entered the marketplace, and the use of rotenone appears to be waning. A number of plant substances have been considered for use as insect antifeedants or repellents, but apart from some natural mosquito repellents, little commercial success has ensued for plant substances that modify arthropod behavior. Several factors appear to limit the success of botanicals, most notably regulatory barriers and the availability of competing products (newer synthetics, fermentation products, microbials) that are cost-effective and relatively safe compared with their predecessors. In the context of agricultural pest management, botanical insecticides are best suited for use in organic food production in industrialized countries but can play a much greater role in the production and postharvest protection of food in developing countries.
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        Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth.

        We report on the use of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth in the extracellular synthesis of pure metallic silver and gold nanoparticles and bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with Neem leaf extract, the rapid formation of stable silver and gold nanoparticles at high concentrations is observed to occur. The silver and gold nanoparticles are polydisperse, with a large percentage of gold particles exhibiting an interesting flat, platelike morphology. Competitive reduction of Au3+ and Ag+ ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to Neem leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the silver nanoparticles are adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles, forming a core-shell structure. The rates of reduction of the metal ions by Neem leaf extract are much faster than those observed by us in our earlier studies using microorganisms such as fungi, highlighting the possibility that nanoparticle biological synthesis methodologies will achieve rates of synthesis comparable to those of chemical methods. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
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          Properties and potential of natural pesticides from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica.

           H Schmutterer (1989)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, Faculty of Health, Centre for Molecular and Medical Research, Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Deakin University Geelong, VIC, Australia
            2Department of Gynecology, Government Medical College and Hospital Chandigarh, India
            3Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University Geelong, VIC, Australia
            4Department of Medical Parasitology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research Chandigarh, India
            Author notes

            Edited by: David W. M. Leung, University of Canterbury, New Zealand

            Reviewed by: Taras P. Pasternak, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Germany; Hossein Alizadeh, Lincoln University, New Zealand

            *Correspondence: Jagat R. Kanwar jagat.kanwar@ 123456deakin.edu.au

            This article was submitted to Plant Biotechnology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

            Contributors
            Journal
            Front Plant Sci
            Front Plant Sci
            Front. Plant Sci.
            Frontiers in Plant Science
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            1664-462X
            08 May 2017
            2017
            : 8
            5420583 10.3389/fpls.2017.00610
            Copyright © 2017 Chaudhary, Kanwar, Sehgal, Cahill, Barrow, Sehgal and Kanwar.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

            Counts
            Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 108, Pages: 13, Words: 10514
            Funding
            Funded by: Australia-India Strategic Research Fund 10.13039/501100001134
            Funded by: National Health and Medical Research Council 10.13039/501100000925
            Categories
            Plant Science
            Review

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