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      Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease

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          Abstract

          Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the main neuropathological hallmarks in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, it has become increasingly apparent that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of AD. This review summarizes the current status of neuroinflammation research related to AD, focusing on the connections between neuroinflammation and some inflammation factors in AD. Among these connections, we discuss the dysfunctional blood–brain barrier and alterations in the functional responses of microglia and astrocytes in this process. In addition, we summarize and discuss the role of intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B cascade, and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-gamma transcription factors. Finally, the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and classic AD pathology (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) in AD is also reviewed.

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          Alzheimer's disease.

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            Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling.

            The transcription factor NF-kappaB has served as a standard for inducible transcription factors for more than 20 years. The numerous stimuli that activate NF-kappaB, and the large number of genes regulated by NF-kappaB, ensure that this transcription factor is still the subject of intense research. Here, we attempt to synthesize some of the basic principles that have emerged from studies of NF-kappaB, and we aim to generate a more unified view of NF-kappaB regulation.
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              Astrocyte-endothelial interactions at the blood-brain barrier.

              The blood-brain barrier, which is formed by the endothelial cells that line cerebral microvessels, has an important role in maintaining a precisely regulated microenvironment for reliable neuronal signalling. At present, there is great interest in the association of brain microvessels, astrocytes and neurons to form functional 'neurovascular units', and recent studies have highlighted the importance of brain endothelial cells in this modular organization. Here, we explore specific interactions between the brain endothelium, astrocytes and neurons that may regulate blood-brain barrier function. An understanding of how these interactions are disturbed in pathological conditions could lead to the development of new protective and restorative therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6328
                1178-2021
                2015
                30 January 2015
                : 11
                : 243-256
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou City, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou City, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Linlan Jiang, Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command No 111, Liuhua Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City 510010, People’s Republic of China, Tel/Fax +86 20 8865 3475, Email jlinlan@ 123456vip.tom.com
                ndt-11-243
                10.2147/NDT.S75546
                4321665
                © 2015 Zhang and Jiang. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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