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      Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease

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          Abstract

          Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the main neuropathological hallmarks in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, it has become increasingly apparent that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of AD. This review summarizes the current status of neuroinflammation research related to AD, focusing on the connections between neuroinflammation and some inflammation factors in AD. Among these connections, we discuss the dysfunctional blood–brain barrier and alterations in the functional responses of microglia and astrocytes in this process. In addition, we summarize and discuss the role of intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B cascade, and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-gamma transcription factors. Finally, the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and classic AD pathology (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) in AD is also reviewed.

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          Most cited references 144

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          Anatomical profiling of nuclear receptor expression reveals a hierarchical transcriptional network.

          In multicellular organisms, the ability to regulate reproduction, development, and nutrient utilization coincided with the evolution of nuclear receptors (NRs), transcription factors that utilize lipophilic ligands to mediate their function. Studying the expression profile of NRs offers a simple, powerful way to obtain highly relational information about their physiologic functions as individual proteins and as a superfamily. We surveyed the expression of all 49 mouse NR mRNAs in 39 tissues, representing diverse anatomical systems. The resulting data set uncovers several NR clades whose patterns of expression indicate their ability to coordinate the transcriptional programs necessary to affect distinct physiologic pathways. Remarkably, this regulatory network divides along the following two physiologic paradigms: (1) reproduction, development, and growth and (2) nutrient uptake, metabolism, and excretion. These data reveal a hierarchical transcriptional circuitry that extends beyond individual tissues to form a meganetwork governing physiology on an organismal scale.
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            Alzheimer's disease: strategies for disease modification.

             Martin Citron (2010)
            Alzheimer's disease is the largest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. However, in recent years, several approaches aimed at inhibiting disease progression have advanced to clinical trials. Among these, strategies targeting the production and clearance of the amyloid-beta peptide - a cardinal feature of Alzheimer's disease that is thought to be important in disease pathogenesis - are the most advanced. Approaches aimed at modulating the abnormal aggregation of tau filaments (another key feature of the disease), and those targeting metabolic dysfunction, are also being evaluated in the clinic. This article discusses recent progress with each of these strategies, with a focus on anti-amyloid strategies, highlighting the lessons learned and the challenges that remain.
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              Interleukin-6, a Major Cytokine in the Central Nervous System

              Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine originally identified almost 30 years ago as a B-cell differentiation factor, capable of inducing the maturation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. As with many other cytokines, it was soon realized that IL-6 was not a factor only involved in the immune response, but with many critical roles in major physiological systems including the nervous system. IL-6 is now known to participate in neurogenesis (influencing both neurons and glial cells), and in the response of mature neurons and glial cells in normal conditions and following a wide arrange of injury models. In many respects, IL-6 behaves in a neurotrophin-like fashion, and seemingly makes understandable why the cytokine family that it belongs to is known as neuropoietins. Its expression is affected in several of the main brain diseases, and animal models strongly suggest that IL-6 could have a role in the observed neuropathology and that therefore it is a clear target of strategic therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6328
                1178-2021
                2015
                30 January 2015
                : 11
                : 243-256
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou City, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou City, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Linlan Jiang, Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command No 111, Liuhua Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou City 510010, People’s Republic of China, Tel/Fax +86 20 8865 3475, Email jlinlan@ 123456vip.tom.com
                Article
                ndt-11-243
                10.2147/NDT.S75546
                4321665
                © 2015 Zhang and Jiang. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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