Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a rare genetic disorder that results from defective mechanisms of bile secretion. We aim to describe different types of PFIC and their clinical features, treatment modalities, and outcomes in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with PFIC at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2021. All relevant information was collected from patient charts and transferred into the REDcap® database for statistical analysis.
A total of 79 patients were identified with PFIC, and PFIC type 3 was the most common (59.5%), followed by PFIC type 2 (34.2%), PFIC type 1 (5.1%), and PFIC type 4 (1.3%). Males and females were affected in 54.4% and 45.6%, respectively. Mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11, and ABCB4 genes were observed in PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2, and PFIC type 3, and loss of function in a variant of TJP2 was detected in PFIC type 4, respectively. A total of 51 (64.6%) patients underwent liver transplantation: three patients (3/4) with PFIC type 1 (75%), twenty patients (20/27) with PFIC type 2 (74.1%), twenty-seven patients (27/47) with PFIC type 3 (57.4%), and one patient with PFIC type 4 (100%). The mean duration of disease before transplantation was 53.9 ± 67 months with a median of 30 months. Following liver transplantation, symptomatic control was achieved in 47 patients (92.2%). Recurrence after transplantation occurred in 4 patients (7.8%) within an average of 22.5 months and a median of 17 months.
PFIC is considered a rare disorder in Saudi Arabia; however, early recognition of the disease is important for appropriate management and early referral for liver transplantation evaluation. The overall rate of liver transplantation in our cohort was 64.6% with an excellent five-year survival rate.