13 December 2018
Diabetes, Drugs, Metformin, Microbiome, Type-2 diabetes, Probiotics, Prebiotics, AGIs, α-Glucosidase inhibitors, AMP, adenosine monophosphate, AMPK, AMP-kinases, BCCA, branched-chain amino acid, cAMP, cyclic AMP, DPP-4, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1, glucagon-like protein-1, HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c, HFD, high-fat diet, HFHSD, high-fat high-sucrose diet, IR, insulin resistance, LPS, lipopolysaccharide, MS, multiple sclerosis, PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids, SGLT, sodium-glucose cotransporters, SGLT2, sodium-dependent glucose transport-2, T2D, type-2 diabetes, IR, insulin resistance, TLR, toll-like receptor, TZDs, thiazolidinediones
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a global epidemic. Although several drugs are available to manage T2D, problems associated with person-to-person variability in drug efficacy and potential side-effects remain unresolved. Owing to the emerging role of the gut microbiome in obesity and T2D, the interaction between gut microbes and anti-diabetic drugs and its influence on drugs' functions remains of immediate research interest. On one hand, drugs can manipulate gut microbiome composition and metabolic capacity. Conversely, the metabolic activities of the microbiome and its metabolites can also influence drug metabolism and effects. Hence, understanding this bi-directional drug-microbiome interaction and how it influences the clinical outcomes of antidiabetic drugs can pave the way to develop next-generation strategies to ameliorate diabetes. This review presents evidences demonstrating the putative interactions between anti-diabetic drugs and the gut microbiome, and discusses the potential of microbiome modulators to manipulate drug-microbiome interactions and the drug metabolism.
Gut microbes interact with medications used to treat T2D, that at least partially mediates potential benefits of these drugs.
Anti-diabetic drugs impact gut microbiome and its metabolic activity and vice-versa.
Understanding the dynamics of drug-microbiome cross-talk would offer better therapeutic outcomes for diabetes.