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      Angiotensin II Infusion Alters Vascular Function in Mouse Resistance Vessels: Roles of O –·2 and Endothelium

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          Abstract

          We hypothesized that prolonged angiotensin II (AngII) infusion would alter vascular reactivity by enhancing superoxide anion (O<sup>–·2</sup>) generation. Male C57BL/6 mice were infused with AngII at 400 ng/kg/min (n = 16, AngII mice) or vehicle (n = 16, sham mice) for 2 weeks via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps. Contraction and relaxation of mesenteric resistance vessels (MRVs) were assessed using a Mulvany-Halpern myograph. AngII infusion increased systolic blood pressure, MRV NADPH oxidase activity and expression of p22<sup>phox</sup> mRNA. Contraction to norepinephrine was unchanged, but AngII infusion increased contractile responses to AngII (41 ± 5 vs. 10 ± 4%, p < 0.001) and endothelin-1 (ET-1; 95 ± 10 vs. 70 ± 9%, p < 0.05), which was normalized by tempol (10<sup>–4</sup> M, a stable membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic) and ebselen [10<sup>–5</sup> M, a peroxynitrite (ONOO<sup>–</sup>) scavenger]. Endothelium removal enhanced MRV contraction to AngII and ET-1 in sham mice but blunted these contractile responses in AngII mice. Relaxation to ACh was impaired in AngII mice (60.1 ± 8.8 vs. 83.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01), which normalized by tempol, whereas relaxation to sodium nitroprusside was similar in both groups. N-nitro- L-arginine (NNLA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), partially inhibited acetylcholine relaxation of vessels from sham mice but not from AngII mice. The residual endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing-factor-like relaxation was not different between groups. In conclusion,the AngII slow pressor response in mouse MRVs consisted of specific contractile hyperresponsiveness and impairment in the NO-mediated component of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was mediated by O<sup>–·2</sup> and ONOO<sup>–</sup> in the vascular smooth muscle cell.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Superoxide anion is involved in the breakdown of endothelium-derived vascular relaxing factor.

          Endothelium-derived vascular relaxing factor (EDRF) is a humoral agent that is released by vascular endothelium and mediates vasodilator responses induced by various substances including acetylcholine and bradykinin. EDRF is very unstable, with a half-life of between 6 and 50 s, and is clearly distinguishable from prostacyclin. The chemical structure of EDRF is unknown but it has been suggested that it is either a hydroperoxy- or free radical-derivative of arachidonic acid or an unstable aldehyde, ketone or lactone. We have examined the role of superoxide anion (O-2) in the inactivation of EDRF released from vascular endothelial cells cultured on microcarrier beads and bioassayed using a cascade of superfused aortic smooth muscle strips. With this system, we have now demonstrated that EDRF is protected from breakdown by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu2+, but not by catalase, and is inactivated by Fe2+. These findings indicate that O-2 contributes significantly to the instability of EDRF.
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            Hydrogen peroxide is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in mice.

            The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by synthesizing and releasing several endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO), and the previously unidentified endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In this study, we examined our hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is an EDHF. EDHF-mediated relaxation and hyperpolarization in response to acetylcholine (ACh) were markedly attenuated in small mesenteric arteries from eNOS knockout (eNOS-KO) mice. In the eNOS-KO mice, vasodilating and hyperpolarizing responses of vascular smooth muscle per se were fairly well preserved, as was the increase in intracellular calcium in endothelial cells in response to ACh. Antihypertensive treatment with hydralazine failed to improve the EDHF-mediated relaxation. Catalase, which dismutates H(2)O(2) to form water and oxygen, inhibited EDHF-mediated relaxation and hyperpolarization, but it did not affect endothelium-independent relaxation following treatment with the K(+) channel opener levcromakalim. Exogenous H(2)O(2) elicited similar relaxation and hyperpolarization in endothelium-stripped arteries. Finally, laser confocal microscopic examination with peroxide-sensitive fluorescence dye demonstrated that the endothelium produced H(2)O(2) upon stimulation by ACh and that the H(2)O(2) production was markedly reduced in eNOS-KO mice. These results indicate that H(2)O(2) is an EDHF in mouse small mesenteric arteries and that eNOS is a major source of the reactive oxygen species.
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              Cardiovascular health and disease in women.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2006
                December 2005
                21 December 2005
                : 43
                : 1
                : 109-119
                Affiliations
                Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., USA
                Article
                89969 J Vasc Res 2006;43:109–119
                10.1159/000089969
                16340215
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 56, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Paper

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