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      Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females

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          Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus .

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          The global distribution and burden of dengue

          Dengue is a systemic viral infection transmitted between humans by Aedes mosquitoes 1 . For some patients dengue is a life-threatening illness 2 . There are currently no licensed vaccines or specific therapeutics, and substantial vector control efforts have not stopped its rapid emergence and global spread 3 . The contemporary worldwide distribution of the risk of dengue virus infection 4 and its public health burden are poorly known 2,5 . Here we undertake an exhaustive assembly of known records of dengue occurrence worldwide, and use a formal modelling framework to map the global distribution of dengue risk. We then pair the resulting risk map with detailed longitudinal information from dengue cohort studies and population surfaces to infer the public health burden of dengue in 2010. We predict dengue to be ubiquitous throughout the tropics, with local spatial variations in risk influenced strongly by rainfall, temperature and the degree of urbanisation. Using cartographic approaches, we estimate there to be 390 million (95 percent credible interval 284-528) dengue infections per year, of which 96 million (67-136) manifest apparently (any level of clinical or sub-clinical severity). This infection total is more than three times the dengue burden estimate of the World Health Organization 2 . Stratification of our estimates by country allows comparison with national dengue reporting, after taking into account the probability of an apparent infection being formally reported. The most notable differences are discussed. These new risk maps and infection estimates provide novel insights into the global, regional and national public health burden imposed by dengue. We anticipate that they will provide a starting point for a wider discussion about the global impact of this disease and will help guide improvements in disease control strategies using vaccine, drug and vector control methods and in their economic evaluation. [285]
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            R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing

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              R: Language and Environment for Statistical Computing


                Author and article information

                [1 ] Programa de Computação Científica
                [2 ] Laboratório de Transmissores de Hematozoários
                [3 ] Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Insetos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
                [4 ] lnstituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia/Entomologia Molecular, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Brasilia, DF, Brasil
                [5 ] Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, University of Florida, Vero Beach, Florida, USA
                Author notes
                [+ ] Corresponding author:

                Financial support: FAPERJ (E-26/111.302/2011), INCT-EM/CNPq (407744/2012-6), NIH-USA (R21 AI095780)


                In memoriam

                Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz
                Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
                Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
                Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
                December 2013
                December 2013
                : 108
                : Suppl 1
                : 18-25

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 47, Pages: 8
                Funded by: FAPERJ
                Award ID: E-26/111.302/2011
                Funded by: INCT-EM/CNPq
                Award ID: 407744/2012-6
                Funded by: NIH-USA
                Award ID: R21 AI095780


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