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      Characterization of brain-infiltrating mononuclear cells during infection with mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM


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          The eradication of infectious virus from the central nervous system (CNS) following infection with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) is thought to be immune-mediated. Furthermore, a significant decrease of infectious virus coincides with the appearance of prominent inflammatory infiltrates in the brain and spinal cord. In the present study, mononuclear cells infiltrating the brain during JHMV infection were isolated and characterized. While all subsets of immune cells were present, there appeared to be a temporal relationship between the peak incidence of CD8 + T cells (40% of total isolated cells) and reduction of virus at day 7 post-infection. Cells with the natural killer (NK) phenotype (at least 30%) were also present throughout infection. These data suggest that CD8 + T cells and NK cells are prominent among cells which infiltrate the brain during JHM virus infection and may have important roles in reduction of virus within the CNS.

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          Pathogenesis of demyelination induced by a mouse hepatitis.

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            Mechanism of demyelination in JHM virus encephalomyelitis

            Summary Weanling mice were given intraperitoneal inoculations of the neurotropic, JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus, the virulence of which had been altered by repeated mouse passages. Five to seven days later many animals developed hind leg paralysis. The pathology consisted of an acute encephalomyelitis with patchy demyelinating lesions in the brain stem and spinal cord. Virus particles, consistent with the appearance of corona viruses, were found in the cytoplasm of cells that were identified as oligondendrocytes by demonstrating connections of their plasma membranes with myelin lamellae. Following the degeneration of oligodendrocytes the myelin sheaths disintegrated or were stripped off intact axons by cytoplasmic tongues of polymorpho- and mononuclear leucocytes that intruded between myelin lamellae. The findings indicate that JHM virus has an affinity for oligodendrocytes in weanling mice and that demyelination occurs subsequently to the degeneration of the infected oligodendrocytes.
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              Effective clearance of mouse hepatitis virus from the central nervous system requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

              Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are required for the clearance of virus from the central nervous system following infection with the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. Development of antiviral antibodies requires the presence of CD4+ T cells but appears to play a minimal role in the reduction of virus. The data presented are consistent with the hypothesis that clearance of JHM virus is mediated by virus-specific CD8+ T cells, which appear to require the presence of CD4+ T cells.

                Author and article information

                J Neuroimmunol
                J. Neuroimmunol
                Journal of Neuroimmunology
                Published by Elsevier B.V.
                11 November 2002
                June 1991
                11 November 2002
                : 32
                : 3
                : 199-207
                [a ]Department of Neurology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, U.S.A.
                [b ]Department of Microbiology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, U.S.A.
                Author notes
                []Address for correspondence: Jo S.P. Williamson, University of Southern California School of Medicine, 2025 Zonal Avenue, MCH 142 Los Angeles, CA 90033, U.S.A.
                Copyright © 1991 Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 17 September 1990
                : 15 December 1990
                : 17 December 1990

                immune response,central nervous system,mouse hepatitis virus,cd8+ cytotoxic cell,nk cell


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