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      ICU early physical rehabilitation programs: financial modeling of cost savings.

      Critical Care Medicine

      United States, Cost Savings, methods, economics, Rehabilitation, Program Evaluation, Models, Economic, trends, Length of Stay, Intensive Care Units, Humans, Hospitals, General, nursing, Early Ambulation, rehabilitation, Critical Illness

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          Abstract

          To evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing an ICU early rehabilitation program. Using data from existing publications and actual experience with an early rehabilitation program in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU, we developed a model of net financial savings/costs and presented results for ICUs with 200, 600, 900, and 2,000 annual admissions, accounting for both conservative- and best-case scenarios. Our example scenario provided a projected financial analysis of the Johns Hopkins Medical ICU early rehabilitation program, with 900 admissions per year, using actual reductions in length of stay achieved by this program. U.S.-based adult ICUs. Financial modeling of the introduction of an ICU early rehabilitation program. Net cost savings generated in our example scenario, with 900 annual admissions and actual length of stay reductions of 22% and 19% for the ICU and floor, respectively, were $817,836. Sensitivity analyses, which used conservative- and best-case scenarios for length of stay reductions and varied the per-day ICU and floor costs, across ICUs with 200-2,000 annual admissions, yielded financial projections ranging from -$87,611 (net cost) to $3,763,149 (net savings). Of the 24 scenarios included in these sensitivity analyses, 20 (83%) demonstrated net savings, with a relatively small net cost occurring in the remaining four scenarios, mostly when simultaneously combining the most conservative assumptions. A financial model, based on actual experience and published data, projects that investment in an ICU early rehabilitation program can generate net financial savings for U.S. hospitals. Even under the most conservative assumptions, the projected net cost of implementing such a program is modest relative to the substantial improvements in patient outcomes demonstrated by ICU early rehabilitation programs.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Early intensive care unit mobility therapy in the treatment of acute respiratory failure.

          Immobilization and subsequent weakness are consequences of critical illness. Despite the theoretical advantages of physical therapy to address this problem, it has not been shown that physical therapy initiated in the intensive care unit offers benefit. Prospective cohort study in a university medical intensive care unit that assessed whether a mobility protocol increased the proportion of intensive care unit patients receiving physical therapy vs. usual care. Medical intensive care unit patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation on admission: Protocol, n = 165; Usual Care, n = 165. An intensive care unit Mobility Team (critical care nurse, nursing assistant, physical therapist) initiated the protocol within 48 hrs of mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients receiving physical therapy in patients surviving to hospital discharge. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Outcome data are reflective of survivors. More Protocol patients received at least one physical therapy session than did Usual Care (80% vs. 47%, p < or = .001). Protocol patients were out of bed earlier (5 vs. 11 days, p < or = .001), had therapy initiated more frequently in the intensive care unit (91% vs. 13%, p < or = .001), and had similar low complication rates compared with Usual Care. For Protocol patients, intensive care unit length of stay was 5.5 vs. 6.9 days for Usual Care (p = .025); hospital length of stay for Protocol patients was 11.2 vs. 14.5 days for Usual Care (p = .006) (intensive care unit/hospital length of stay adjusted for body mass index, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, vasopressor). There were no untoward events during an intensive care unit Mobility session and no cost difference (survivors + nonsurvivors) between the two arms, including Mobility Team costs. A Mobility Team using a mobility protocol initiated earlier physical therapy that was feasible, safe, did not increase costs, and was associated with decreased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay in survivors who received physical therapy during intensive care unit treatment compared with patients who received usual care.
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            Long-term complications of critical care.

            As critical care advances and intensive care unit mortality declines, the number of survivors of critical illness is increasing. These survivors frequently experience long-lasting complications of critical care. As a result, it is important to understand these complications and implement evidence-based practices to minimize them. Database searches and review of relevant medical literature. Critical illness and intensive care unit care influence a wide range of long-term patient outcomes, with some impairments persisting for 5-15 yrs. Impaired pulmonary function, greater healthcare utilization, and increased mortality are observed in intensive care survivors. Neuromuscular weakness and impairments in both physical function and related aspects of quality of life are common and may be long-lasting. These complications may be reduced by multidisciplinary physical rehabilitation initiated early and continued throughout the intensive care unit care stay and by providing patient education for self-rehabilitation after hospital discharge. Common neuropsychiatric complications, including cognitive impairment and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, are frequently associated with intensive care unit sedation, delirium or delusional memories, and long-term impairments in quality of life. Survivors of critical illness are frequently left with a legacy of long-term physical, neuropsychiatric, and quality of life impairments. Understanding patient and intensive care risk factors can help identify patients who are most at risk of these complications. Furthermore, modifiable risk factors and beneficial interventions are increasingly being identified to help inform practical management recommendations to reduce the prevalence and impact of these long-term complications.
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              Daily cost of an intensive care unit day: the contribution of mechanical ventilation.

              To quantify the mean daily cost of intensive care, identify key factors associated with increased cost, and determine the incremental cost of mechanical ventilation during a day in the intensive care unit. Retrospective cohort analysis using data from NDCHealth's Hospital Patient Level Database. A total of 253 geographically diverse U.S. hospitals. The study included 51,009 patients >/=18 yrs of age admitted to an intensive care unit between October 1, 2002, and December 31, 2002. None. Days of intensive care and mechanical ventilation were identified using billing data, and daily costs were calculated as the sum of daily charges multiplied by hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Cost data are presented as mean (+/-sd). Incremental daily cost of mechanical ventilation was calculated using log-linear regression, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Approximately 36% of identified patients were mechanically ventilated at some point during their intensive care unit stay. Mechanically ventilated patients were older (63.5 yrs vs. 61.7 yrs, p < .0001) and more likely to be male (56.1% vs. 51.8%, p < 0.0001), compared with patients who were not mechanically ventilated, and required mechanical ventilation for a mean duration of 5.6 days +/- 9.6. Mean intensive care unit cost and length of stay were 31,574 +/- 42,570 dollars and 14.4 days +/- 15.8 for patients requiring mechanical ventilation and 12,931 +/- 20,569 dollars and 8.5 days +/- 10.5 for those not requiring mechanical ventilation. Daily costs were greatest on intensive care unit day 1 (mechanical ventilation, 10,794 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 6,667 dollars), decreased on day 2 (mechanical ventilation:, 4,796 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 3,496 dollars), and became stable after day 3 (mechanical ventilation, 3,968 dollars; no mechanical ventilation, 3,184 dollars). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, the mean incremental cost of mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit patients was 1,522 dollars per day (p < .001). Intensive care unit costs are highest during the first 2 days of admission, stabilizing at a lower level thereafter. Mechanical ventilation is associated with significantly higher daily costs for patients receiving treatment in the intensive care unit throughout their entire intensive care unit stay. Interventions that result in reduced intensive care unit length of stay and/or duration of mechanical ventilation could lead to substantial reductions in total inpatient cost.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182711de2
                23318489

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