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      Combining two antifungal agents does not enhance survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis

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          Most cited references 31

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          Azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilms is partly associated with efflux pump activity.

          This study investigated the phase-dependent expression and activity of efflux pumps in Aspergillus fumigatus treated with voriconazole. Fourteen strains were shown to become increasingly resistant in the 12-h (16- to 128-fold) and 24-h (>512-fold) phases compared to 8-h germlings. An Ala-Nap uptake assay demonstrated a significant increase in efflux pump activity in the 12-h and 24-h phases (P<0.0001). The efflux pump activity of the 8-h germling cells was also significantly induced by voriconazole (P<0.001) after 24 h of treatment. Inhibition of efflux pump activity with the competitive substrate MC-207,110 reduced the voriconazole MIC values for the A. fumigatus germling cells by 2- to 8-fold. Quantitative expression analysis of AfuMDR4 mRNA transcripts showed a phase-dependent increase as the mycelial complexity increased, which was coincidental with a strain-dependent increase in azole resistance. Voriconazole also significantly induced this in a time-dependent manner (P<0.001). Finally, an in vivo mouse biofilm model was used to evaluate efflux pump expression, and it was shown that AfuMDR4 was constitutively expressed and significantly induced by treatment with voriconazole after 24 h (P<0.01). Our results demonstrate that efflux pumps are expressed in complex A. fumigatus biofilm populations and that this contributes to azole resistance. Moreover, voriconazole treatment induces efflux pump expression. Collectively, these data may provide evidence for azole treatment failures in clinical cases of aspergillosis.
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            Is Open Access

            Mycetoma Medical Therapy

            Medical treatment of mycetoma depends on its fungal or bacterial etiology. Clinically, these entities share similar features that can confuse diagnosis, causing a lack of therapeutic response due to inappropriate treatment. This review evaluates the response to available antimicrobial agents in actinomycetoma and the current status of antifungal drugs for treatment of eumycetoma.
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              Fungal cell membrane-promising drug target for antifungal therapy.

              Increase in invasive fungal infections over the past few years especially in immunocompromised patients prompted the search for new antifungal agents with improved efficacy. Current antifungal armoury includes very few effective drugs like Amphotericin B; new generation azoles, including voriconazole and posaconazole; echinocandins like caspofungin and micafungin to name a few. Azole class of antifungals which target the fungal cell membrane are the first choice of treatment for many years because of their effectiveness. As the fungal cell membrane is predominantly made up of sterols, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids, the role of lipids in pathogenesis and target identification for improved therapeutics were largely pursued by researchers during the last few years. Present review focuses on cell membrane as an antifungal target with emphasis on membrane biogenesis, structure and function of cell membrane, cell membrane inhibitors, screening assays, recent advances and future prospects.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Tropical Medicine & International Health
                Trop Med Int Health
                Wiley
                13602276
                June 2017
                June 2017
                May 02 2017
                : 22
                : 6
                : 696-702
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; ErasmusMC; Rotterdam The Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Pathology; St Elisabeth Ziekenhuis; Tilburg The Netherlands
                [3 ]Mycetoma Research Centre; University of Khartoum; Khartoum Sudan
                Article
                10.1111/tmi.12871
                © 2017

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