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      Fluid accumulation threshold measured by acute body weight change after admission in general surgical intensive care units: how much should be concerning?

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          Abstract

          Background

          The objective of this study ( ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01351506) was to identify the threshold level of fluid accumulation measured by acute body weight (BW) change during the first week in a general surgical intensive care unit (ICU), which is associated with ICU mortality and other adverse outcomes.

          Methods

          Four hundred sixty-five patients were prospectively followed for a 28-day period. The maximum BW change threshold during the first week was evaluated by the maximum percentage change in BW from the ICU admission weight (Max%ΔBW). Daily screening of adverse events in the ICU were recorded. The cutoff point of Max%ΔBW on ICU mortality was defined by considering the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, intersection of the sensitivity and specificity, and the Youden Index. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were used to demonstrate the associations. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05.

          Results

          The appropriate cutoff value of Max%ΔBW threshold was 5%. Regarding the multivariable regression model, in overall patients, the occurrence of the following adverse events (expressed as adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) were significantly associated with a Max%ΔBW of >5%: ICU mortality (2.38 [1.25–4.54]) ( P=0.008), ICU mortality in patients without renal replacement therapy (RRT) (2.47 [1.21–5.06]) ( P=0.013), reintubation within 72 hours (2.51 [1.04–6.00]) ( P=0.039), RRT requirement (2.67 [1.13–6.33]) ( P=0.026), and delirium (1.97 [1.08–3.57]) ( P=0.025). Regarding the postoperative subgroup, a Max%ΔBW value of more than 5% was significantly associated with: ICU mortality (3.87 [1.38–10.85]) ( P=0.010), ICU mortality in patients without RRT (6.32 [1.85–21.64]) ( P=0.003), reintubation within 72 hours (4.44 [1.30–15.16]) ( P=0.017), and vasopressor requirement (2.04 [1.04–4.01]) ( P=0.037).

          Conclusion

          Fluid accumulation, measured as acute BW change of more than the threshold of 5% during the first week of ICU admission, is associated with adverse outcomes of higher ICU mortality, especially in the patients without RRT, with reintubation within 72 hours, with RRT requirement, with vasopressor requirement, and with delirium. Some of these effects were higher in postoperative patients. This threshold value might be an indicator for caution during fluid management in surgical ICU.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Effects of intravenous fluid restriction on postoperative complications: comparison of two perioperative fluid regimens: a randomized assessor-blinded multicenter trial.

          To investigate the effect of a restricted intravenous fluid regimen versus a standard regimen on complications after colorectal resection. Current fluid administration in major surgery causes a weight increase of 3-6 kg. Complications after colorectal surgery are reported in up to 68% of patients. Associations between postoperative weight gain and poor survival as well as fluid overload and complications have been shown. We did a randomized observer-blinded multicenter trial. After informed consent was obtained, 172 patients were allocated to either a restricted or a standard intraoperative and postoperative intravenous fluid regimen. The restricted regimen aimed at maintaining preoperative body weight; the standard regimen resembled everyday practice. The primary outcome measures were complications; the secondary measures were death and adverse effects. The restricted intravenous fluid regimen significantly reduced postoperative complications both by intention-to-treat (33% versus 51%, P = 0.013) and per-protocol (30% versus 56%, P = 0.003) analyses. The numbers of both cardiopulmonary (7% versus 24%, P = 0.007) and tissue-healing complications (16% versus 31%, P = 0.04) were significantly reduced. No patients died in the restricted group compared with 4 deaths in the standard group (0% versus 4.7%, P = 0.12). No harmful adverse effects were observed. The restricted perioperative intravenous fluid regimen aiming at unchanged body weight reduces complications after elective colorectal resection.
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            A positive fluid balance is associated with a worse outcome in patients with acute renal failure

            Introduction Despite significant improvements in intensive care medicine, the prognosis of acute renal failure (ARF) remains poor, with mortality ranging from 40% to 65%. The aim of the present observational study was to analyze the influence of patient characteristics and fluid balance on the outcome of ARF in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods The data were extracted from the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients (SOAP) study, a multicenter observational cohort study to which 198 ICUs from 24 European countries contributed. All adult patients admitted to a participating ICU between 1 and 15 May 2002, except those admitted for uncomplicated postoperative surveillance, were eligible for the study. For the purposes of this substudy, patients were divided into two groups according to whether they had ARF. The groups were compared with respect to patient characteristics, fluid balance, and outcome. Results Of the 3,147 patients included in the SOAP study, 1,120 (36%) had ARF at some point during their ICU stay. Sixty-day mortality rates were 36% in patients with ARF and 16% in patients without ARF (P < 0.01). Oliguric patients and patients treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) had higher 60-day mortality rates than patients without oliguria or the need for RRT (41% versus 33% and 52% versus 32%, respectively; P < 0.01). Independent risk factors for 60-day mortality in the patients with ARF were age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), heart failure, liver cirrhosis, medical admission, mean fluid balance, and need for mechanical ventilation. Among patients treated with RRT, length of stay and mortality were lower when RRT was started early in the course of the ICU stay. Conclusion In this large European multicenter study, a positive fluid balance was an important factor associated with increased 60-day mortality. Outcome among patients treated with RRT was better when RRT was started early in the course of the ICU stay.
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              Optimal cut-point and its corresponding Youden Index to discriminate individuals using pooled blood samples.

              Costs can hamper the evaluation of the effectiveness of new biomarkers. Analysis of smaller numbers of pooled specimens has been shown to be a useful cost-cutting technique. The Youden index (J), a function of sensitivity (q) and specificity (p), is a commonly used measure of overall diagnostic effectiveness. More importantly, J is the maximum vertical distance or difference between the ROC curve and the diagonal or chance line; it occurs at the cut-point that optimizes the biomarker's differentiating ability when equal weight is given to sensitivity and specificity. Using the additive property of the gamma and normal distributions, we present a method to estimate the Youden index and the optimal cut-point, and extend its applications to pooled samples. We study the effect of pooling when only a fixed number of individuals are available for testing, and pooling is carried out to save on the number of assays. We measure loss of information by the change in root mean squared error of the estimates of the optimal cut-point and the Youden index, and we study the extent of this loss via a simulation study. In conclusion, pooling can result in a substantial cost reduction while preserving the effectiveness of estimators, especially when the pool size is not very large.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2015
                27 July 2015
                : 11
                : 1097-1106
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                [2 ]Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kaweesak Chittawatanarat, Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Intawarorod Road, Sripume District, Amphur Muang Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand, Tel +66 53 945 533, Fax +66 53 946 139, Email kchittaw@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                tcrm-11-1097
                10.2147/TCRM.S86409
                4524471
                © 2015 Chittawatanarat et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                fluid accumulation, body weight change, adverse events, surgical intensive care unit

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