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      Seasonal variations in semen characteristics, semen cryopreservation, estrus synchronization, and successful artificial insemination in the spotted deer (Axis axis).

      1 , , ,

      Theriogenology

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Ten adult male spotted deer were monitored over a 2-year interval to determine seasonal variations in testicular size, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations, and to determine if there was an association between season and type of antler. Mean (+/-S.E.M.) testicular volume (118.8+/-4.6 cm(3)), serum testosterone concentration (1.2+/-0.1 ng/mL), semen volume (4.1+/-0.6 mL), sperm concentration (338.3+/-24.9 x 10(6) mL(-1)), percentage of morphologically normal sperm (79.1+/-2.8%), and percentage of motile sperm (66.5+/-1.5%) were higher (P<0.05) in hard antler deer (peaked from March to May) than in deer with velvet antlers or in deer in which the antler has been shed. Thus, March-May was considered the physiologic breeding season for these deer; at this time, all stags had hard antlers. Furthermore, a Tris-citrate-based semen extender containing 4% glycerol and 20% egg-yolk was adequate for cryopreservation of semen. Estrus was induced with an implant containing norgestomet, timed transcervical AI was done with fresh semen, and 3 of 10 females were pregnant at 60 days, with fawns born 120 (premature), 240 and 243 days after AI. These results were considered a model for the use of assisted reproductive techniques to conserve other critically endangered deer species of India.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Theriogenology
          Theriogenology
          Elsevier BV
          0093-691X
          0093-691X
          May 2007
          : 67
          : 8
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India.
          Article
          S0093-691X(07)00081-7
          10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.01.019
          17383719

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